The commonwealth is instituted when all agree in the

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The commonwealth is instituted when all agree in the following manner: I authorise and give up my right of governing myself to this man, or to this assembly of men, on this condition; that thou give up, thy right to him, and authorise all his actions in like manner. The sovereign has twelve principal rights: 1. because a successive covenant cannot override a prior one, the subjects cannot (lawfully) change the form of government. 2. because the covenant forming the commonwealth is the subjects giving to the sovereign the right to act for them, the sovereign cannot possibly breach the covenant; and therefore the subjects can never argue to be freed from the covenant because of the actions of the sovereign. 3. the selection of sovereign is (in theory) by majority vote; the minority have agreed to abide by this. 4. every subject is author of the acts of the sovereign: hence the sovereign cannot injure any of his subjects, and cannot be accused of injustice. 5. following this, the sovereign cannot justly be put to death by the subjects.
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6. because the purpose of the commonwealth is peace, and the sovereign has the right to do whatever he thinks necessary for the preserving of peace and security and prevention of discord, therefore the sovereign may judge what opinions and doctrines are averse; who shall be allowed to speak to multitudes; and who shall examine the doctrines of all books before they are published. 7. to prescribe the rules of civil law and property. 8. to be judge in all cases. 9. to make war and peace as he sees fit; and to command the army. 10. to choose counsellors, ministers, magistrates and officers. 11. to reward with riches and honour; or to punish with corporal or pecuniary punishment or ignominy. 12. to establish laws of honour and a scale of worth. Hobbes explicitly rejects the idea of Separation of Powers, in particular the form that would later become the separation of powers under the United States Constitution . Part 6 is a perhaps under-emphasised feature of Hobbes's argument: his is explicitly in favour of censorship of the press and restrictions on the rights of free speech, should they be considered desirable by the sovereign in order to promote order. LOCKE Second Treatise The Second Treatise is notable for a number of themes which Locke develops therein. It begins with a depiction of the state of nature , wherein individuals are under no obligation to obey one another but are each themselves judge of what the law of nature requires. It also covers conquest and slavery, property, representative government, and the right of revolution. State of nature The work of Thomas Hobbes made theories based upon a state of nature popular in Seventeenth-Century England, even as most of those who employed such arguments were deeply troubled by his absolutist conclusions. Locke's state of nature can be seen in light of this tradition. Because there is no divinely ordained monarch over all the world, as was argued in the First Treatise, the natural state of mankind is anarchic . In
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