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Since the 1930s, many heirs to the fundamentalist movement, known as evangelicals, who study the Bible together and cherish being “born again”in Christ, have become a strong movement within Protestantism. Within the evangelical movement, there is a range of conservative and liberal views on biblical interpretation and social issues, but scholars generally agree that evangelicalism has four defining characteristics: conversionism, activism, Biblicism, and crucicentrism. Many evangelicals and other conservative Protestants await the rapture when Christians will be transported to heaven to live with Jesus in immortal bodies, and they may believe that the end times are imminent. Modern means of mass communication make evangelical ideas widely available. Evangelicalism is also widespread in South America. Spirit-oriented movementsSharing some characteristics with the evangelicals, there is a rising emphasis on the charismaticexperience, or divinely inspired powers. Charismatics may include Protestant Pentecostal church members, mainline Protestant denomination members, Roman Catholics, and Orthodox Christians. Charismatics focus on the Holy Spirit and divinely inspired powers, bringing about emotional spiritual experiences such as speaking in tongues, spontaneous healing, and miracles. Among Roman Catholics, this trend is known as “Charismatic Renewal.”Up to one-fourth of Christians overall may be in some way affiliated with Spirit-oriented Christianity. There is no typical pattern to the charismatic experiences. Pentecostalism seeks a second experience of the Holy Spirit after the initial experience of salvation through belief in Jesus as Savior. They require speaking in tongues as a sign of the “second grace”of baptism by the Holy Spirit. The Pentecostal-Charismatic movement is now said to be the fastest-growing religious movement in the world. The Great Reversal Although contemporary Christianity was mainly shaped in Europe and its North American colonies, its greatest numerical strength is now in Africa, Latin America, and parts of Asia. Christianity today is about 65% non-Western, with many indigenous, independent churches in
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