Since 3p electrons in both s and cl are predominantly

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Since 3p electrons in both S and Cl are predominantly screened ONLY by electrons of LOWER PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBER , Z eff (3p in S) < Z eff (3p in Cl). Thus, the increasing value of Z eff will make the first ionization energy of chlorine, I 1 (Cl) is greater than I 1 (S). Even though electron repulsion effects by other electrons with n = 3 will tend to aid the ionization process, they will make similar contributions for S and Cl. Thus, the order based on a consideration of Z eff is the appropriate one. When an electron is added, in each case, it will go into a 3p orbital which already contains a single electron. Such an added electron will experience a SMALLER Z eff for S than for Cl. From these considerations, the added electron in Cl will be bound MORE TIGHTLY than the added electron in S. In both cases, adding an electron will produce additional electron repulsion. However, this must be more than offset by the attractive force associated with Z eff . Thus the activation energy of chlorine, ε (Cl) is greater than ε (S).
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3 4. Photons of 274 nm are at the threshold for electron ejection. The energy of a 274 nm photon is the work function. The work function is the energy h ν 0 , the threshold energy. Use Planck's Law The expression developed by Einstein will provide the kinetic energy of electrons ejected
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