rance, the Jews instituted the feast of Purim. This feast is stillobserved and is a time of great joy among Jews;h)A description of Mordecai’s greatness (Esther): -history.com/oldtestament/bookofesther.html).There is plot and counterplot and counter-counterplot... But onlythe attempt to exterminate the Jews is ideologically motivated, thisway (Esther):. And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus: There is a certain people scatteredabroad and dispersed among the peoples in all the provinces of thy kingdom;and their laws are diverse from those of every people; neither keep they theking’s laws; therefore it profiteth not the king to suffer them.. If it pleasethe king, let it be written that they be destroyed.This is the Hebrew text. It is worth considering the longer Septua-ginta version (:b-g), which is clearerWhereas I reigned over many nations, and had brought all the world undermy dominion, I was not willing to abuse the greatness of my power, butto govern my subjects with clemency and lenity,[...]. But when I askedmy counsellors how this might be accomplished, one [...], Aman by name,Told me that there was a people scattered through the whole world, whichused new laws, and acted against the customs of all nations, despised thecommandments of kings, and violated by their opposition the concord of allnations. Wherefore having learned this, and seeing one nation in oppositionto all mankind using perverse laws, and going against our commandments,and disturbing the peace and concord of the provinces subject to us, Wehave commanded that all whom Aman shall mark out,[...] shall be utterlydestroyed by their enemies, with their wives and children, and that noneshall have pity on them. [...] That these wicked men going down to hell inone day, may restore to our empire the peace which they had disturbed.
Anti-Semitism as protype of conspiracy theoriesThe point is the same of the Exodus. Those to be exterminated areattributed an evil plot against the kingdom and the whole mankind.The conspiracy presents itself as a counter-conspiracy. But, for onereason or the other, it fails and what prevails is the counter-counter-conspiracy led by Mordechai (or in the Exodus by Moshe), which infact gives freedom and life to the oppressed.But why do they have to be exterminated? Because they are “apeople scattered through the whole world, which used new laws, andacted against the customs of all nations, despised the commandmentsof kings, and violated by their opposition the concord of all nations”(Esther). Because they are “too many and too mighty for us” (Exo-dus). Well, not as many and as powerful as “we” are, but enough tobecome a possible antisubject in a possible future story. The samepattern will be repeated many times in history, up to Hitler and to thecurrent charges against the Jewish finance and Israel. But then thereis another charge. In a mythical past they were, refusing to recognizeour laws, our Prophet, our Messiah, our Party. From a semiotic pointof view, we should remark that in these conspiracy theories, the first