Development focuses on building the knowledge and skills of organiza- tional members so they are prepared to take on new responsibilities and challenges. Training tends to be used more frequently at lower levels of an organization; develop- ment tends to be used more frequently with professionals and managers.
Needs Assessment Classroom instructionOn-the-job training Apprenticeships (can include classroom instruction and on-the-job training) Classroom instruction 416 Chapter Twelve needs assessment An assessment of which employees need training or development and what type of skills or knowledge they need to acquire. on-the-job training Training that takes place in the work setting as employees perform their job tasks. Figure 12.4 Training and Development Before creating training and development programs, managers should perform a needs assessment to determine which employees need training or development and what type of skills or knowledge they need to acquire (see Figure 12.4). 79 Types of Training There are two types of training: classroom instruction and on-the-job training. CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION Through classroom instruction, employees acquire knowledge and skills in a classroom setting. This instruction may take place within the organization or outside it, such as through courses at local colleges and universi- ties. Many organizations establish their own formal instructional divisions—some are even called “colleges”—to provide needed classroom instruction. For example, at Disney, classroom instruction and other forms of training and developing are pro- vided to employees at Disney University. 80 Classroom instruction frequently uses videos and role playing in addition to tra- ditional written materials, lectures, and group discussions. Videos can demonstrate appropriate and inappropriate job behaviors. For example, by watching an experi- enced salesperson effectively deal with a loud and angry customer, inexperienced salespeople can develop skills in handling similar situations. During role playing, trainees either directly participate in or watch others perform actual job activities in a simulated setting. At McDonald’s Hamburger University, for example, role play- ing helps franchisees acquire the knowledge and skills they need to manage their restaurants. Simulations also can be part of classroom instruction, particularly for compli- cated jobs that require an extensive amount of learning and in which errors carry a high cost. In a simulation, key aspects of the work situation and job tasks are duplicated as closely as possible in an artificial setting. For example, air traffic controllers are trained by simulations because of the complicated nature of the work, the extensive amount of learning involved, and the very high costs of air traffic control errors.
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- Summer '17
- Mary Kovach
- The Land