Advertising media:The vehicles through which advertising messages are delivered to their intended audiences.Reach: is a measure of the percentage of people in the target market who are exposed to the ad campaign during a given period of time.
Frequency:is a measure of how many times the average person in the target market is exposed to the message.The advertiser also must determine the desired media impact—the qualitative value of message exposure through a given medium.For products that need to be demonstrated, messages on television may have more impact than messages on radio because television uses sight and sound.The major media types are television, newspapers, the Internet, direct mail, magazines, radio, and outdoor. Advertisers can also choose from a wide array of new digital media, such as cellphones and other digital devices, which reach consumers directly.Media planners consider many factors when making their media choices. They want to choose media that will effectively and efficiently present the advertising message to target customers.Another important trend affecting media selection is the rapid growth in the number of “media multitaskers,”people who absorb more than one medium at a time. One survey found that three-fourths of TV viewers read the newspaper while they watch TV, and two-thirds of them go online during their TV viewing time.Finally, the advertiser must choose the pattern of the ads. Continuity:means scheduling ads evenly within a given period. Pulsing:means scheduling ads unevenly over a given time period. Thus, 52 ads could either be scheduled at one per week during the year or be pulsed in several bursts. The idea behind pulsing is to advertise heavily for a short period to build awareness that carries over to the next advertising period.Return on advertising investment:The net return on advertising investment divided by the costs of theadvertising investment.Pre- and post-evaluations of communication effects can be made for entire advertising campaigns as well.Because so many factors affect advertising effectiveness, some controllable and others not, measuring the results of advertising spending remains an inexact science.Although the situation is improving as marketers seek more answers, managers often must rely on largedoses of judgment along with quantitative analysis when assessing advertising performance.Different companies organize in different ways to handle advertising. In small companies, advertising might be handled by someone in the sales department. Large companies have advertising departmentswhose job it is to set the advertising budget, work with the ad agency, and handle other advertising notdone by the agency.
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