Michalopoulos S and Papaioannou E 2010 Divide and Rule or the Rule of the Di

Michalopoulos s and papaioannou e 2010 divide and

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Michalopoulos, S. and Papaioannou, E. (2010). ‘Divide and Rule’ or the Rule of the Di- vided? Evidence from Africa. Working Paper . Moav, O. and Mayshar, J. (2011). Title not yet listed on programme. Paper presented at the 2011 Royal Economic Society meetings . Morton-Williams, P. (1969). The influence of habitat and trade on the polities of Oyo and Ashanti. In Man in Africa , pages 79–98. Tavistock Publications. Murdock, G. (1959). Its Peoples and Their Culture History . Nueva York. Murdock, G. (1967). Ethnographic atlas . University of Pittsburgh Press.
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32 JAMES FENSKE Neumark, S. (1977). Trans-Saharan Trade in the Middle Ages. The pre-colonial period , page 127. Nunn, N. (2008). The Long-Term Effects of Africa’s Slave Trades. Quarterly Journal of Economics , 123(1):139–176. Nunn, N. and Puga, D. (2009). Ruggedness: The blessing of bad geography in Africa. NBER Working Paper . Oliver, R. and Fage, J. (1962). A short History of Africa. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Olson, M. (1993). Dictatorship, democracy, and development. American Political Sci- ence Review , 87(3):567–576. Robinson, J. (2002). States and Power in Africa by Jeffrey I. Herbst: A review essay. Jour- nal of Economic Literature , 40(2):510–519. Rodney, W. (1972). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Beyond borders: Thinking crit- ically about global issues , pages 107–125. Shillington, K. (1989). History of Africa . Bedford Books. Spencer, C. (1998). A mathematical model of primary state formation. Cultural Dynam- ics , 10(1):5. Spencer, C. (2010). Territorial expansion and primary state formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 107(16):7119. Sundstr ”om, L. (1974). the exchange economy of pre-colonial tropical Africa . C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. Taylor, B. (1962). The western lacustrine Bantu. London: International African Institute . Tilly, C. and Ardant, G. (1975). The formation of national states in Western Europe . Princeton Univ Pr. Vansina, J. (1966). Kingdoms of the Savanna . University of Wisconsin Press London. White, F. (1983). The vegetation of Africa: a descriptive memoir to accompany the UN- ESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Natural resources research , 20:1–356. Wilson, A. (1972). Long distance trade and the Luba Lomami Empire. The Journal of African History , 13(04):575–589. Wooldridge, J. (2002). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data . The MIT press.
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ECOLOGY, TRADE AND STATES IN PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA 33 T ABLE 19. Full results [Table 19 here]
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Abuts ecological divide Diversified area No ecological variation Kinship 12% 17% 40% Chiefs 38% 50% 20% Central monarch 50% 33% 40% N 8 6 20 Absent 25% 40% 67% Present 75% 60% 33% N 8 5 18 Absent 38% 40% 50% Present 62% 60% 50% N 8 5 20 Local level 62% 40% 50% Regional level 0% 20% 10% National level 38% 40% 40% N 8 5 20 Notes: Adapted from Bates (1983), p. 43. Table 1. Bates' evidence Army commanded at National army Central bureaucracy Political structure
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Mean s.d. Min Max N State centralization 1.15 0.93 0 4 440 Any centralization 0.73 0.44 0 1 440 Local state 2.91 0.68 2 4 439 Class stratification 1.25 1.41 0 4 364 Slavery 1.83 1.03 0 3 383 Headman appointed 0.066 0.25 0 1 320 Light density 1.50 0.18 1.15 3.34 440 Ecological diversity 0.30 0.23 0 0.80 440 Eco. Div. (FAO) 0.47 0.23 0 0.80 440 Predicted Eco. Div. (FAO) 0.20 0.21 0 0.70 440 Dist. ecological divide 0.45 0.53 0.019 2.95 440 Any diversity 0.78 0.42 0 1 440 Salt 0.42 0.88 0 6 440 Gold production 0.34 1.86 0 24 440 Iron production 0.12 0.33 0 1 440 % dep. on fishing 8.32 10.9 0 70 440 Table 2. Summary Statistics Outcomes Gains from trade
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Mean s.d.
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