Avoid lying down for an hour after eating. If you become short of breath while eating or right after meals: Clear the airways 1 hour before eating. Take small bites and chew food slowly. Choose foods that are easy to chew. Drink beverages at the end of the meal rather than during it. Use your oxygen cannula while you eat. Consume sufficient calcium via dairy products, vegetables, and supplements Cook when feeling most energetic; make extra portions and freeze them
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Emphysema: Destruction of alveolar walls and damaged, narrowed small airways Leads to large, permanently inflated alveolar spaces Inhaled air becomes trapped, pt must work harder to exhale than inhale Dyspnea and “barrel” chest Begins to use other muscles, mainly neck and shoulders, which they’ll hold high Chronic bronchitis: Excess mucus secretion interfering with airflow starting in large airway Inflammatory damage to the bronchial mucosa causing productive cough Considered chronic when recurrent cough is present for at least 3 months of each year for 2 years (Refer to Tables 14-2 for more information on COPD.)
Asthma Pathophysiology: Reversible airway obstruction, inflammation, or swelling Increased airway sensitivity to a variety of stimuli Signs, symptoms, and diagnosis May be continuous or episodic Wheezing, cough worse at night, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, DYSPNEA Cough usually indicates obstruction of the larger airways A severe attack can cause death from hypoxia (status asthmaticus) Treatment Bronchodilators, beta-adrenergic agonists, atrovent Singulair is a dilator and anti-inflammatory that is given daily Not intended for acute asthma episodes (Refer to Table 14-3 for stages and 14-4 for more meds.)
Figure 14- 3 Bronchoconstricti on in asthma
Nursing Management: Asthma (all respiratory) Smoking cessation After quitting pulmonary function improves After 10-20 years lung cancer risk is equal to that of a non-smoker Patient and family teaching for restrictive airway disease pts Management of medications and side effects Respiratory therapy/ manage dyspnea Avoid allergens Balance exercise and rest S/S of complications Need for close medical supervision Know patient teaching pg 306 AND pt teaching LUNG exercises pg 71 KNOW HOW TO USE A Peak Flow Meter
Lung Cancer Cigarette smoking is primary cause People who live with smokers have 2x the risk as someone who isn’t regularly exposed Chronic irritation and dysplasia Diagnosis: chest x-ray, CT, MRI, bronch, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) Treatment Based on the type of cancer, small cell or non-small cell, and stage If localized in early stages can surgically remove (segmental resection, lobectomy, wedge resection, and pneumonectomy) Never turn a pneumonectomy patient onto un-operated side
Pulmonary Vascular Disorders
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 38 pages?
- Fall '19
- productive cough