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●First, they “looked for what ever underground organization needs: help” (129). With Aktion, which is explained to be when the SS destroys a Ghetto, always a possibility, it is important that Resistance Groups have support of Jews in their Ghetto. With out help, not only do the groups lack the resources for rebellion, but also the sheer man power to overwhelm the SS. ●Second, Kovner talks about the need for a strong leader. While he and a few other men had high ranking positions in the Group, they did have a strong leader that made decisions and was the face of the organization. In the testimony, Kovner explains that he and his group didn’t want to give up Wittenberg to the authorities because they needed a strong face for the organization, but-- going back to my first point-- they needed the man power. They couldn’t turn over every leader to the Gestapo. That would destroy their organization from the inside. ●Lastly, the Group had to deal with the other Jews in the Ghetto. As Kovner explains, “everything we had built up over the years, all our plans, were collapsing because of what was happening, and because it was possible to madden the victims with the hope of an extra hour of life” (131). By this, he means that, the “victims,” or the other Jews in the Ghetto, refused to think in the long term. Instead of coming together as a group with the Resistance and Wittenberg to fight against
the Germans and have freedom for good, they wanted to live solely a few hours more by appeasing the SS and giving them what they wanted. The Ghetto destroyed the Jew’s humanity so much, that they didn’t see the resistance fighters were trying to help them. With concerns such as these-- finding help, getting a strong leader, and the dehumanization of the Jews-- Aktion didn’t help the Resistance groups trying to fight the Nazis. memoir excerpts from Marta AppellBackgroundSpinning thru 1933 - 1937●Marta Appel, a Jewish mother, wrote her memoir in 1940 and embodies all of the ideals of the German mother. She describes in detail the situation of her family and the Jewish community, which was under constant Gestapo surveillance after 1933. Her daughters were exposed to growing persecution at school, but her husband was attached to Germany and his community and she was unable to persuade him to emigrate. In April 1937 the two were arrested as co-presidents of the B’nai B’rith Lodge, when the Gestapo dissolved it and confiscated its arrest. After their release, in May 1937, they secretly fled to Holland with their daughters and emigrated from there to relatives in the US. ●Appel's memoir showed a great sense of fear. Jewish women were typically more fearful and emotional when it came to this situation. They feared of being Jewish, afraid that something would happen to their children. She even feared to go to the bus or movies because she did not want to be identified as a Jew. You can tell that in Appel's memoir, her identity was gradually fading away.