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agency be used for a project in a member’s district via. a phone○phonemarking and lettermarking, not part of congressional authorization, argue that shielded from public scrutiny, more difficult to track than earmarking ●casework- representation in the form of aid to a constituent or group by getting the gov. to do something the constituent wants done ○ombudsperson- elected or appointed representative who acts as a citizens advocate, listen to needs and investigating complaints; Mondale and the constituent service dilemma, national interest served best used to find grandma'ssocial security check?●congressional elections most important influences are incumbency and redistricting●main responsibility of Congress, and all other functions in congress are related to- law making ○congress can: declare war, has a law-making function ●oversight- process by which congress “checks” the executive branch○congressional hearings- how a law is being implemented and examine the impact○confirmation hearings- on presidential appointees, gov. agencies and executive departments○investigations○budgetary appropriations- determine funding ●agenda setting- which public policy issues the federal legislature should consider●Every bill must be approved in both houses identical form- steps to passing a bill○introduction○committee review○house and senate approval
○conference committee reconciliation○presidential approval ○Only a member of the House or Senate may introduce a bill but ANYONEcan write a bill. This means constituents, interest groups, or even someone on behalf of the president may write a bill, so long as they can find a member of the U.S. Congress to introduce it.○Over 9,000 bills are proposed in an average session of Congress, and fewer than5 to 10% of the proposed bills are enacted. The low percentage b/c there are numerous steps in the process where a bill can die before it becomes law.○Most bills originate in the executive branch, meaning the president or someone on behalf of the president writes or proposes a bill and finds a member of Congress that is of the same party as the president to introduce the bill.○A bill must survive three stages to become a law: committees, the floor, and the conference committee. A bill can die at any stage.○In order to become a law, a bill must be passed by both the House and the Senate.●congressional record- formal record of all actions taken by Congress ●seniority system- member w/ longest continuous tenure receives preference when the committee chooses a chair ●standing committee- permanent committees with a defined legislative jurisdiction;house has 24, senate 20●select committees- specially created to consider a specific policy issue or to address a particular concern ●joint committees- bicameral committees composed of members of both chambers of congress ●subcommittees- typically handle specific areas of committees jurisdiction ●agency review