agency be used for a project in a members district via a phone phonemarking and

Agency be used for a project in a members district

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agency be used for a project in a member’s district via. a phone phonemarking and lettermarking, not part of congressional authorization, argue that shielded from public scrutiny, more difficult to track than earmarking casework - representation in the form of aid to a constituent or group by getting the gov. to do something the constituent wants done ombudsperson - elected or appointed representative who acts as a citizens advocate, listen to needs and investigating complaints; Mondale and the constituent service dilemma, national interest served best used to find grandma's social security check? congressional elections most important influences are incumbency and redistricting main responsibility of Congress, and all other functions in congress are related to- law making congress can: declare war, has a law-making function oversight - process by which congress “checks” the executive branch congressional hearings- how a law is being implemented and examine the impact confirmation hearings- on presidential appointees, gov. agencies and executive departments investigations budgetary appropriations- determine funding agenda setting - which public policy issues the federal legislature should consider Every bill must be approved in both houses identical form- steps to passing a bill introduction committee review house and senate approval
conference committee reconciliation presidential approval Only a member of the House or Senate may introduce a bill but ANYONE can write a bill. This means constituents, interest groups, or even someone on behalf of the president may write a bill, so long as they can find a member of the U.S. Congress to introduce it. Over 9,000 bills are proposed in an average session of Congress, and fewer than 5 to 10% of the proposed bills are enacted. The low percentage b/c there are numerous steps in the process where a bill can die before it becomes law. Most bills originate in the executive branch , meaning the president or someone on behalf of the president writes or proposes a bill and finds a member of Congress that is of the same party as the president to introduce the bill. A bill must survive three stages to become a law: committees, the floor, and the conference committee. A bill can die at any stage. In order to become a law, a bill must be passed by both the House and the Senate. congressional record - formal record of all actions taken by Congress seniority system - member w/ longest continuous tenure receives preference when the committee chooses a chair standing committee - permanent committees with a defined legislative jurisdiction;house has 24, senate 20 select committees - specially created to consider a specific policy issue or to address a particular concern joint committees - bicameral committees composed of members of both chambers of congress subcommittees - typically handle specific areas of committees jurisdiction agency review

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