Population growth and increases in income per person are the key drivers behind

Population growth and increases in income per person

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States’ gas supply by the year 2030. Population growth and increases in income per person are the key drivers behind growing demand for energy. By 2030, the world’s population is projected to reach 8.5 billion, which means that an additional 1.4 billion people will need energy. Fossil fuel use will peak around 2030, when solar energy will surpass coal, oil and gas (Bloomberg New Energy Finance) and more streets, homes, vessels and planes will be powered by alternative sources of energy. FOOD AND WATER Access to fresh water in sufficient quantity and quality will be a major global challenge as a result of population growth, urbanisation, wasteful prac- tices, pollution and climate change. The United Nations has stated that agriculture will account for an increasingly larger proportion of water usage in the world by 2030, and the demand placed upon the world’s food and water systems will continue to grow in tandem with anticipated global popula- tion growth. Also, the emergence of a global middle class will lead to increased pressure on resources for the foreseeable future. With much of the world's arable land turning to desert, hydroponic and "ver- tical farms" will be common features of urban cen- tres and many countries will turn to desalination plants to mitigate the effect of severe droughts due to climate change. TECHNOLOGY In 2030, technology is pervasive and dictates human activity. By then, Information and Communications Technology will continue to radically transform the way we work, live and play and the rise of social media will make us more interconnected as trillions of devices will collect and exchange information. As the cost of sensors decline and computing power increases, all kinds of devices will be connected to the internet. From clothes to footpaths, everything will be online. At the same time, more machines will be working autonomously and technology will replace routine and unsociable work. With the growth of artificial intelligence (AI), labour costs will shift from operations, maintenance and training to design and development. Machines will perform repairs and routine maintenance will be done mostly by robots. Farms, factories and warehouses will be operated by robots—which can navigate through rows, aisles and shelves, identify products and load them for delivery. 3D printers will be smaller, faster and cheaper and will use a wider range of materials, such as plas- tic, aluminium, stainless steel, ceramic or even advanced alloys, and will begin replacing factory operations. Also, 3D technology will expand from producing wind turbines and toys to creating prototypes and specific parts for the automotive industry, among others. Smart cities will be more pervasive as advances in technology and the internet will facilitate greater connection of services, utilities and roads, and bet- ter management of energy and traffic. These cities will have many new data-driven services, includ- ing intelligent parking solutions, smart trash col- lection and intelligent lighting. More vehicles, vessels and planes would be driverless, equipped
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