PS 101 B1 Final Study Guide

Retroactive interference difficulty recalling old

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Proactive: difficulty remembering new info vs. retroactive interference: difficulty recalling old info because of new info learned State-dependent memory Flashbulb memory: flash memory Patient H.M. Retrograde: memory loss of everything BEFORE an event or accident Anterograde amnesia: not able to make new memories after an accident or brain damage Types of memories- semantic, episodic: autobiographical memory, procedural: step by step of how to do things Memory failures Memory aids Cognition, Thinking, Language Strategies for problem solving Inductive: using generalizations to draw specific conclusions deductive reasoning: using generalizations to draw general conclusions. Parts of language- phoneme: , morpheme: smallest unit of language, syntax: making sense of words to form sentences, semantics: study of language Language acquisition device: ability you are born with that allows you to understand speech and language Broca’s aphasia: trouble with speech after an accident Wernicke’s aphasia: able to speak but has trouble making sensible thoughts and sentences Intelligence Chronological age: calendar age Mental age: age that corresponds with your calendar age and test Aptitude test: tests what you could learn Achievement test: tests what you already know Intelligence quotient: mental age/chronological age x100 Intelligence tests- Stanford-Binet and WAIS Criteria for a good test Definition of reliability: repeatable results Types of reliability: test-retest Definition of validity: test measures what it says its going to measure and types of validity Heritability: traits that can be linked to your heredity Personality Definitions of personality: patterns of behavior and temperament Cattell’s 16 Personality Factor Theory: 16 factors each with Eysenck’s Personality Scale Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality Id: pleasure principle; libido; biological things Ego: reality principle Superego: have to be the best Defense mechanisms: used to go around anxiety 4
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Freud’s theory of psychosexual development: place of sexual gratification changes as your mature and develop -Anal Stage –Phallic Stage –Genital Stage Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: self-actualization Self-actualization: highest point of development; good standing; happy; healthy Bandura’s social-learning theory: children learn through observation and modeling; tend to behave in ways that are consistent with standards set by society Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): tests for high ranking officers/officials/important people Projective tests: present ambiguous stimuli to circumvent defense mechanisms so you can access unconscious material Rorschach Inkblot Test Thematic Apperception Test Personality disorders (Axis II) Motivation Role of hypothalamus in motivation Hunger Obesity: 20% over normal body weight
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