When later viewing a brawl or observing two children

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When later viewing a brawl or observing two children fighting (Drabman & Thomas, 1974) Today’s teens appear to have become considerably more desensitized to graphic depictions of violence and sex than their parents were at their age (Mazzuca, 2002) Social scripts Culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations When we find ourselves in new situations, uncertain how to act Rely on social scripts After so many action films Youngsters may acquire a script that is played when they face real-life conflicts
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They may act like a man by intimidating or eliminating the threat The more sexual content that adolescents view (even when controlling for other predictors of early sexual activity) The more likely they are to perceive their peers as sexually active To develop sexually permissive attitudes To experience early intercourse (Escobar-Chaves & others, 2005; Martino & others, 2005) Altered perceptions Mold our conceptions of the real world (Gerbner & others, 1979) Most potent effect Their surveys of both adolescents and adults showed that heavy viewers are more likely than light viewers To exaggerate the frequency of violence in the world around them To fear being personally assaulted For those who watch much television The world become a scary place Cognitive priming Watching violent videos primes networks of aggressive- related ideas (Bushman, 1988) After viewing violence People offer more hostile explanations for others’ behavior Interpret spoken homonyms with the more aggressive meaning Recognize aggressive words more quickly - Media influences: Video games o General aggression model (Anderson & Bushman, 2002) o Effects of the games kids play
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Reasons why violent game playing might have a more toxic effect than watching violent television (Gentile & Anderson) Identify with, and play the role of, a violent character Actively rehearse violence, not just passively watch it Engage in the whole sequence of enacting violence Engaged with continual violence and threats of attack Repeat violent behaviors over and over Rewarded for effective aggression Bushman and Anderson (2002) Participants played a violent (Carmageddon, Duke Nukem, Mortal Kombat, Future Cop) or nonviolent (Glider Pro, 3D Pinball, Austin Powers, Tetra Madness) video game Then they read ambiguous stories about potential interpersonal conflicts Asked what the main character would do, say, think, and feel as the story continued Those playing violent video games were more likely to report aggressive responses Playing violent video games, more than playing nonviolent games (Anderson, 2003) Increases arousal heart rate and blood pressure rise Increases aggressive thinking Increases aggressive feelings frustration levels rise Increases aggressive behaviors even controlling for personality and temperament Decreases prosocial behaviors Decreased brain activity associated with emotion become desensitized to violence -
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  • Fall '16
  • Relational aggression, Bushman,  Berkowitz

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