Industrial Revolution The period in which mass production in factories began to

Industrial revolution the period in which mass

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Industrial Revolution → The period in which mass production in factories began to develop and fostered rapid economic growth. The timing of the Industrial Revolution varied from country to country but is generally thought to have begun in the late eighteenth century and evolved throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
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Labour process → The organization of work, in terms of the relationship between workers and employers, the way specific work tasks are structured and performed, and the technologies and organizational environments in which the work is performed. Hawthorne studies → An influential series of studies at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric company in the 1920s. Two major findings emerged from these studies: (1) the experiment effect, which is any change interpreted by workers as management’s attempt to improve conditions, especially those that provide mental stimulation and improve workers’ productivity; and (2) the social group effect, in which workers who are moved to separate spaces as a group develop bonds that increase their productivity. Scientific management → A movement that arose in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that attempted to improve productivity by ensuring that managers controlled all aspects of the labour process and would utilize the best practices available given existing technology and knowledge. Assembly line → A type of factory in which each worker performs one or a handful of small, discrete tasks, with a conveyer belt moving pieces to each workstation. A finished product results from the input of many workers across an entire factory. Deskilling → The process of breaking down the tasks involved in the production of goods or services into parts that can be done by someone without specialized training. CHAPTER 12 DEFINTIONS Polygamy → The practice of marriage of one individual to two or more other individuals. Patrilocal → A family relationship in which a married couple resides with the husband’s parents. Same-sex marriage → A marriage between two partners of the same sex. Kin → Other people that individuals have important social relationships with. These important others often include immediate (and sometimes extended) family members but also can include close friends and even other acquaintances who play an important (and sometimes supportive) role in one’s life. Kinship system → The social links and boundaries, defined by biology and social custom, that establish who is related to whom. Nuclear family → A term used to describe a family consisting of a husband and wife and their children
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Family values → A term generally associated with views and ideas about the family that highlight the virtues of heterosexual marriage and childrearing in a traditional nuclear family with defined gender roles. Family values can also be applied to other kinds of nontraditional unions.
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