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d.In re Debs – 1895i.Debs’ conviction for violating a court injunction to break up the strike upheld- e.U.S. v. E.C. Knight – 1895i.Sherman anti-trust act can only apply to interstate commerce not manufacturing . So manufacturing companies not subject to anti-trust lawsf.Pollack v. Farmer’s Loan and Trust -1895i.Income tax of Wilson Gorman Tariff is unconstitutional because it’s a direct tax.1897 - SUPREME COURT RULES THAT THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION (ICC) CANNOT REGULARE RAILROAD RATESOVERALL-COURT CASES PRIOR TO 1900 FAVORED BIG BUSINESS!!!URBANIZATION:Political Machines- political Bosses provide services and welfare to poor immigrants in exchange for rounding up votes from their “ward”IV.Reaction to Gilded Age
a.Jane Addams is remembered primarily as a founder of the Settlement House Movement. She and her friend Ellen Starr founded Hull House in the slums of Chicago in 1889. She is also remembered as the first American Woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. b.Jacob Riis- "How the other half lives" Urbanization photographerV.Immigrationa.Ellis Island- located in NY harbor between NY and NJ. Immigrants had to pass inspection. 20% would be detained. More than 16 million immigrants passed through including my great grandfather. You can visit their website and look up names.b.Angel Island- off the west coast and processed Asian immigrants. c.Gov. attempts to limit immigrationi.1882 - Chinese Exclusion Act barred Chinese from entering US For ten years. Supreme Court upheld it. (they kept the Act).ii.1896 - Congress passed a literacy test aimed at New immigrants - people pushed to limit immigrants - Cleveland vetoed it iii.1907-1908 - later - Gentlemen’s Aggreement- Japan agrees to limit emigration to the US while Teddy Roosevelt agreed to end Asian segregation taking place in San Franciscoiv.1892 - extended Chinese Exclusion Act for another ten years.VI.Populistsa.Factors that hurt farmersi.All money had to be backed by gold- the gold standard- making it so that there was not that much cash flowing around-deflationii.Less cash in circulation keeps prices down.iii.Too much crops being produced because more land being cultivated also keeps prices down (supply and demand)iv.Having to pay the middle men (Railroads, Grain storage)v.Debt and Interest owed to furnish merchants.b.Actions Taken by farmersi.Patrons of Husbandry-the Grange-around 1870; Farmer's Alliances; Populist or People's partyc.Populist platformi.Unions be permanentii.Direct Election of Senators (Instead of by the State legislatures)iii.Government regulation of railroad companiesiv.free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the present legal ratio of 16 to 1. (Bimetalism) (will allow for more money greenbacks in circulation)v.graduated income tax. (Tax the wealthier at a higher rate than the poor)vi.sub treasuries (places where crops would be stored till prices increase)vii.postal banksviii.land, including a including all the natural sources of wealth, is the heritage of the people,