(importance of susceptibility) Humans are not susceptible to saccharin In 2000, the FDA removed the ban of saccharin (no longer on carcinogens list), and now it is fully allowed in the US without any restriction and no warning label (Canada kept its restriction) Sweeteners based on natural occurring alcohol like Sorbitol (a polyalcohol) oA lot of OH groups (polyalcohol)
Sorbitol(6 OH) has a relative sweetness of 0.6X(saccharin was 400-500x) and has 2.6 calories(saccharin has 0 calories)It is very slowly metabolized by the body therefore it sits in colon and can ferment there (exploding diarrhea) Xylitol(5 OH) has a relative sweetness of 1.0Xand has 2.4 calories(used in sugarless gum and does not promote tooth decay, increases salivation and reduces acid that causes tooth decay) oSugarless gum can include saccharin, sorbitol, and xylitolo4 out of 5 dentists recommend this sugarless gum (its always possible that 1 dentist doesn’t agree so Trident uses this to protect itself from getting sued) oMay have laxative effects like Sorbitol Artificial sweetener CyclamateSaccharin-free can have cyclamateDiscovered accidentally in 1937 by Micheal Sveda who was smoking in the lab and tip of cigarette had a sweet taste because it had mixed with compounds near his lab Cyclamate resembles structure of SaccharinCyclamate is 30Xsweeter than sugar and has 0 caloriesand NO bitter aftertaste(ADVANTAGE over saccharin)Popular until a 1969 study that showed that Bladder tumours in rats fed a 10:1 mixture of cyclamate-saccharinoCyclamate was banned as a food additive but available as a table top sweetener in Canada (and both banned in US) In Canada, Sweet ‘N Low doesn’t contain saccharin, but just cyclamate – in the US, it contains saccharin, but not cyclamate all countries are different with regulations
Midterm 2 In-Class NotesJoe SchwarczScience tries to turn confusion into understanding“Food preservatives linked to obesity and gut disease”oThis is false, were talking about emulsifiersEmulsion – tiny droplets ex: salad dressingEmulsifiers are widely usedoHas hydrophilic (loves it) end and hydrophobic (hates it) end (one end dissolves in water, the other in oil)oUsed in puddings and ice creamoAnimals given emulsifier solution gained weightEmulsifier changed concentration in gut microbes of rat’s intenstinesNot concentration, but TOTAL AMOUNT that matters (ex: salad dressing is insignificant to us in our total diet)oAnother study – Sorbitan Monostearate – prevents water from leaving stomach easily (bound to fatty substances) – contradicts and says you will have LESS of an apetite hereMessage that we are probably eating too many processed foods Parmesan cheese – “the parmesan cheese you sprinkle on your penne could be wood” oCellulose powder does come from wood pulpCellulose is a giant molecule most abundant organic compound
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- Spring '11
- Sucralose, Sugar substitute, E number, Food additive