1890 london theatre production used a phonograph to

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1890 london theatre production used a phonograph to play the sound of a baby crying, the first known use of recorded sound in a play 1960s sound effects could now be recorded on analogue tape, edited by splicing, and cued up and played back on professional reel to reel tape players 1971 'sound designer' first used on broadway for Jesus Christ Superstar 1921 'lighting designer' first used on broadway 1993 Yale School of Drama, one of the US leading dramatic training programs, admitted sound designers into theatre design school 1997 work of sound designers legitimized by american theatre wing and broadway league with creation of Tony Award for Best Sound Design The art of the sound designer o Intensity- loudness o frequency- high or low pitch o Duration- how long o Direction- where sound originates from o Rhythm- musical rhythm and timing of a sound cue o Movement- how a sounds origin travels- like a plane flying from left or right o Timbre- sound color, quality of sound that makes the same note played at the same loudness different on a piano as opposed to a guitar Functions o To confirm or enhance the reality established in the play (When King Lear is on the barren heath during a storm and says, “Blow winds,” what kind of storm noises will be used?) o To convey information ( a sound montage can be created such as footsteps, a slowly opening creaking door, and then a blood curdling scream is a simple sequence of sounds that tell a story; likewise, piano music off stage may suggests someone is playing in another room). o To create an environment (sound can establish a sense of place or locale, traffic noises, sound of children playing in a park, sounds of slot machines in a casino).
o To support theatrical moments by dramatic emphasis (dramatic string music — violin or cello—can help build upon the dramatic tension in a scene, for example). o To provide direct musical and/or vocal support (a melodrama requires musical support, while singers in a musical may require body microphones to make sure they can be heard above the orchestra). Sound designers point of view o Lowri sion sound designer for The Camouflage Project o Four readings of scripts Intial: enjoyment Effects that are necessary for the show, sound effects that are mentioned and necessary for the logical progression of action of stage Any musical requirements Creativity takes control Open mind Know what is necessary and what is not Two different playback systems o SFX o Wings Not common practice to provide surround sound Section 5.1 WWE Monday Night Raw 297 Section 5.2 Popular Entertainment: What is it? 307 Latin root of word 'popular' is populares, which means 'of the people' Entertain comes from two latin words: inter meaning 'between or among' and tenenere meaning ' to hold, keep, or maintain' Popular entertainment is dismissed as art: o Much of what we call popular entertainment is ephemeral, was not created to last o Popular entertainment is aimed at the broadest possible audience o

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