Sumner lives looses balance functions mind still very

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- Sumner lives (looses balance functions, mind still very sharp)C.Harper’s Ferry Raid of 1859 – John Brown caught & hanged- broke into U.S. armory- wanted to kill whites at plantations & give guns to slavesChapter 14 – The Civil WarI.Election of 1860A. Republicans1.Nominate Abraham Lincoln for president and Hannibal Hamlin for VP2.Platform – federal government has authority to stop slavery’s expansion into western territoriesB.Democrats Divide1.Northern Democrats nominate Stephen Douglas (“Little Giant”) & want popular sovereignty to determine slavery in western territories
2.Southern Democrats call themselves “National Democrats” and nominate John C. Breckenridge of Kentuckya.desire federal protection of slavery in western territories- willing to loose states’ rights to keep slaveryC.Constitutional Union Party1.Nominated John Bell of Tennessee & supported primarily by former Whigs not willing to join Republicans- called “ding dongs”2.Popular in “border states” & upper South3.Platform – avoid confrontational issues, doesn’t take a stand for anythingD.Lincoln wins by less than 40% of popular voteII.The South Secedes From the UnionA.South Carolina was 1st– Dec. 1860B.7 states of deep South withdrew before Lincoln’s inauguration: Federal property was seizedC.Lincoln’s response: no state had legal authority to secede. Federal property will be protectedD.Crittendon’s Compromise – redraw Missouri Compromise line to west coast1.Called for a Constitutional Amendment to protect slavery south of the line, but prohibit north of the line2.Plan was defeated in CongressE.Confederate States of America – formed Feb. 1861- confederate: states have more power than federal government1.Capital originally in Montgomery, AL, but later moved to Richmond, VA2.Constitution emphasized states’ rights, but not the right of secession. Slavery protected3.Executive Leadershipa.Jefferson Davis – Presidentb.Alexander Stevens – Vice PresidentF.The War Begins1.South Carolina attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor – April 12th, 18612.U.S. surrenders fort. Civil War begins.“The Union is perpetual” – Lincoln- 1stdeath of the Civil War was accidental 3.Secession continues: 4 more states pull out of the Union 4.Border statesa.Remained in the Union but with slavesb.Divided loyalty among its citizens, but governors remained loyal to the Unionc.Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, & West Virginia (state in 1863)
“Copperheads” – Northerners opposed to the Civil War, accused of having Southern sympathies5.Lincoln calls for troops, but war is not officially declared by U.S. Congress6.U.S. Congress refused to recognize the legitimacy of the Confederate government. Lincoln strongly believed CSA was an illegitimate government7.Specialincome tax & sales taxes levied in North to pay for warIII.Battles and StrategiesA.Union Advantages1.Larger population – more soldiers available due to immigration2.Industrial base – military technology made in North3.

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