In the mid 13 th century the incas after a long

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In the mid-13 th century, the Incas, after a “long period of migration in the highlands, settled in the region near Lake Titicaca,” which is located between what is now modern-day Bolivia and Peru, high in the Andes mountains. 5 Around 1438, their leader, Pachacuti, began to expand Inca territory by using military might, and subsequent leaders continued to increase their holdings in a similar manner. At the height of their reign, the Inca empire extended from “Quito in the north to Santiago in the south, making it the largest empire ever seen in the Americas and the largest in the world at that time.” 6 Their population was thought to be close to 11.5 million, extending more than 2,500 miles down the coast of South America from as far north as Columbia down to the southern regions of Chile and Argentina. 7 3 Cristian Violatti, “Zhou Dynasty,” Ancient History Encyclopedia, last modified Jan 3, 2014, accessed Sep 20, 2017, . 4 Mark Cartwright, “Unified Silla Kingdom,” Ancient History Encyclopedia , last modified Oct 6, 2016, accessed Sep 20, 2017, . 5 Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, Heather Streets-Salter, Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past, 6 th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015), 436, SNHU e-book. 6 Mark Cartwright, “Inca Civilization,” Ancient History Encyclopedia , last modified Sep 15, 2014, accessed Sep 23, 2017, . 7 Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, Heather Streets-Salter, Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past, 6 th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015), 437, SNHU e-book.
Environmentally, complex societies began to form around agricultural zones – areas of land which were capable of producing large quantities of food to sustain their people. The Zhou, for example, descended from a nomadic, Neolithic culture, eventually settling in the lower Wei River valley. After the Zhou took over from the Shang dynasty, farming lands were owned by nobles; the nobles provided these lands to their farmers who divided the land into nine squares, with all grain harvested from the middle square going to the government, the remaining squares to the farmers. This system allowed the government to “store surplus food (such as rice) and distribute in times of famine or a poor harvest.” 8 With this nine-square system in place, the Zhou dynasty kept their growing population from starvation, while giving the farmers a sense of purpose. Farmers during the Silla period of Korea also had purpose, but theirs was based more upon the country’s commitment to innovative agriculture practices. According to History of Irrigation in Korea , the Silla Kingdom had a national policy based on the phrase, “Agriculture is the foundation of the nation,” and with this policy in mind, the kingdom established laws which exempted taxes in cases of drought, while distributing stored food and grain in the case of both famine or drought.

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