Xylem and phloem seedless vascular plants 5 ex phylum

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Xylem and phloem Seedless vascular plants (5%) Ex: Phylum lycophyta Ex: Phylum monophy Seed plants Gymnosperms: “ naked seeds “ ( <1%) Phylum ginkgophyta Phylum cycadophyta Phylum gnetophyta Phylum coniferophyta Angiosperms: flowering (85%) Phylum anthophyta Sunflowers Cotyledon- seed leaf Monocots-one seed leaf Edicots- two seed leaf Vascular plants have: Xylem-conduct water and minerals from roots Lignin- complex molecule with variables forms Provides structural support and helps conduct water Phloem- conducts sugars, amino acids, etc. from leaves Plant form and function Form fits function Archaea to substrate ( hight) Absorb water and minerals Large surface area Carbohydrate storage for some
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Symbiotic mycorrhizae Stems Acrial support for leaves, flowers and fruits(seeds) Modified stems for Food storage. Tubers Asexual reproduction- stolons Lateral spreading, storage- Rhizomes Apical buds- at the tip of a shoot or branch Axillary bud- a long a shoot or branch, behind or below apical buds Leaves Increased surface area for photosynthesis, gas exchange, transportation Modified leaves for Energy storage- bulbs Sexual reproduction- flowers Support- tendrils Protection- spines Asexual reproduction Tissue types Dermal tissue- external protection Cuticle- waxy layer on leaves, stems to reduce desiccation. Trichomes- “hair like” growth to deter herbivory, reduce moisture loss. Vascular tissue Xylem- conducts water, minerals Tracheid and vessel element cells Dead at functional maturity Phloem- transports sugars Phloem- transports sugars Phloem- transports sugars Sieve cells and sieve tubes. Ground tissue- carries out metabolic functions Plant Growth
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Meristems- region where tissue is actively dividing undifferentiated cells ( cell division) Apical meristems- growth in length ( primary growth) In apical buds, axillary buds, and root tips. Lateral meristems- growth in diameter (secondary growth) Vascular cambram adds xylem and phloem. Shoot growth. Apical dominance- apical bud inhibits growth of axillary buds Animal browsing or pranting increases axillary growth more bushy form Root growth Apical meristems tissue protected by hard root cap Secreted polysaccharide slime lubricates tip Bud scar Site of previous years apical bud Mark years of growth Leaf scar Site of previous year’s leaf Node Between these Leaf scar/ axillary bud Internode Space between nodes Sapwood Newer secondary xylem, continues to transport Heartwood Older, non-living secondary xylem Older phloem tissue ruptures as tree diameter grows Bark All tissue exterior to the vascular cambrian Annuals Complete life cycle in one year Ex: Flowers planted from seed each year Perennials Live many years
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  • Fall '19
  • phloem, Phylum

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