●Xylem and phloem ■Seedless vascular plants (5%)●Ex: Phylum lycophyta ●Ex: Phylum monophy■Seed plants ●Gymnosperms: “ naked seeds “ ( <1%)○Phylum ginkgophyta ○Phylum cycadophyta○Phylum gnetophyta○Phylum coniferophyta ●Angiosperms: flowering (85%)○Phylum anthophyta ■Sunflowers ○Cotyledon- seed leaf■Monocots-one seed leaf ■Edicots- two seed leaf○Vascular plants have:■Xylem-conduct water and minerals from roots ●Lignin- complex molecule with variables forms●Provides structural support and helps conduct water■Phloem- conducts sugars, amino acids, etc. from leaves○Plant form and function■Form fits function■Archaea to substrate ( hight)■Absorb water and minerals■Large surface area■Carbohydrate storage for some
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■Symbiotic mycorrhizae○Stems ■Acrial support for leaves, flowers and fruits(seeds)○Modified stems for ■Food storage. Tubers■Asexual reproduction- stolons ■Lateral spreading, storage- Rhizomes ○Apical buds- at the tip of a shoot or branch ○Axillary bud- a long a shoot or branch, behind or below apical buds●Leaves○Increased surface area for photosynthesis, gas exchange, transportation○Modified leaves for■Energy storage- bulbs■Sexual reproduction- flowers■Support- tendrils ■Protection- spines■Asexual reproduction○Tissue types ■Dermal tissue- external protection ●Cuticle- waxy layer on leaves, stems to reduce desiccation. ○Trichomes- “hair like” growth to deter herbivory, reduce moisture loss.■Vascular tissue●Xylem- conducts water, minerals■Tracheid and vessel element cells ■Dead at functional maturity●Phloem- transports sugars ●Phloem- transports sugars ●Phloem- transports sugars ○Sieve cells and sieve tubes. ■Ground tissue- carries out metabolic functions●Plant Growth
○Meristems- region where tissue is actively dividing undifferentiated cells ( cell division)○Apical meristems- growth in length ( primary growth)■In apical buds, axillary buds, and root tips. ○Lateral meristems- growth in diameter (secondary growth) ■Vascular cambram adds xylem and phloem. ○Shoot growth.■Apical dominance- apical bud inhibits growth of axillary buds●Animal browsing or pranting increases axillary growth more bushy form○Root growth■Apical meristems tissue protected by hard root cap■Secreted polysaccharide slime lubricates tip○Bud scar■Site of previous years apical bud ■Mark years of growth○Leaf scar■Site of previous year’s leaf○Node■Between these Leaf scar/ axillary bud○Internode ■Space between nodes○Sapwood■Newer secondary xylem, continues to transport ○Heartwood■Older, non-living secondary xylem○Older phloem tissue ruptures as tree diameter grows○Bark■All tissue exterior to the vascular cambrian○Annuals ■Complete life cycle in one year■Ex: Flowers planted from seed each year○Perennials■Live many years
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