3.8 Further Reading In this chapter we presented the basics of process modeling through the BPMN language. Other mainstream languages that can be used to model business processes are UML Activity Diagrams (UML ADs), Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs) and Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL). UML ADs are another OMG standard . They are mainly employed in software engineering where they can be used to describe software behavior and linked to other UML diagram types, e.g. class diagrams, to generate software code. UML ADs offer a subset of the modeling elements present in BPMN. For example, constructs like the OR-join are not supported. A good overview of this language and its application to business process modeling is provided in . EPCs were initially developed for the design of the SAP R/3 reference process model . They obtained a widespread adoption by various organizations when they became the core modeling language of the ARIS toolset [12, 82]. Later, they were used by other vendors for the design of SAP-independent reference models such as ITIL and SCOR. The EPC language includes modeling elements corresponding to BPMN activities, AND, XOR and OR gateways, untyped events and data objects. An introduction to EPCs is provided in . WS-BPEL (BPEL for short) version 2.0  is a standard of the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). A good overview of BPEL is provided in . BPEL is a language for process execution which re- lies on Web service technology to achieve inter-process communication. A mapping from BPMN to BPEL constructs is available in the BPMN specification . How- ever, this mapping is not complete since BPEL offers a restricted set of constructs compared to BPMN, and is essentially a block-oriented language, while BPMN is graph-oriented . BPEL is structured in blocks which need to be properly nested and
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