Other hand steric hindrance increases from primary to

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other hand, steric hindrance increases from primary to secondary to tertiary so primary alkyl halides favor S N 2 reactions. For nucleophiles, S N 2 reactions favor strong nucleophiles (negatively charged nucleophiles) such as CN - and HO - while S N 1 reactions favor weak nucleophiles (neutral compounds) such as H 2 O and CH 3 OH. Because S N 2 reactions prefer strong nucleophiles, it is favored by polar aprotic solvents like acetone because it is polar enough to dissolve the substrate and nucleophile but it won’t participate in hydrogen bonding with the nucleophile. S N 1 reactions typically proceed in polar protic solvents like water which usually act as nucleophiles in the reaction. In this experiment, ethanol is added into the alkyl or aryl group. Then, the alcohol group of the ethanol will substitute the halide by nucleophilic substitution which is S N 2 reaction which both molecules involve in transition state of the rate determining step. This is due to the productive collision occur while the alcohol group hit the carbon on the opposite site of the leaving group. This mechanism show that alkyl halide and alcohol group come togather in the transition state of the one step reaction. Therefore, increase idle one of their concentration will make their collision more probable. Thus, the reaction following the second order kinetics.
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In this experiment, the reaction for hydrolysis of aryl halides and you can compare the rates of hydrolysis of 1-chlorobutane, 1-bromobutane, 1-iodobutane and chlorobenzene. A general equation for the hydrolysis is: R--X + H 2 O---------->R--OH + H + + X - (Where R = alkyl or aryl group; X= halogen atom) However, the reaction between halide and silver will form a silver halide precipitate which formed color compound. Ag + (aq) + X - (aq) ----------->AgX(s) The product of argentum halide was widely use as to make photographic paper since it reacts with photons to form latent image and via photoreduction in photochromic lenses , again taking advantage of its reversible conversion to Ag metal, in bandages and wound healing products, to create yellow, amber, and brown shades in stained glass manufacture, as an infra- red transmissive optical component as it can be hot-pressed into window and lens shape and as an antimicrobial agent. Materials 5 test tubes fitted with corks and test tube rack, Measuring cylinder,10cm³ and beaker,250cm³, 1- chlorobutane, C H Cl, 1-bromobutane,C H Br, 1-iodobutane,C H I, chlorobenzene, C H Cl, silver nitrate solution,0.05M AgNO , water bath (set at 60°C), Labeling paper and dropper , Ethanol C H OH , Test tubes holder Procedure 1. Five test tubes are rinsed with distilled water and mark with the letters from A to E by using labeling paper. 2. Pour 2cm³ of ethanol into test tube A to D. 3. Add 4 drops of 1-chlorobutane to A, 4 drops 1-bromobutane to B, 4 drops of 1-iodobutane to C, 4 drops of chlorobenzene to D and pour 5cm³ of silver nitrate solution to E.
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  • Summer '17
  • law
  • Reaction, Halogen, chlorobenzene

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