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Hours later took 15 hours to reach hawaii warning was

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hours later, took 15 hours to reach Hawaii- warning was issued- 1 st  wave was not very large so people  returned to the waterfront- more arrived and were only 3-7feet high in most locations, but 35 ft in Hilo  Bay. 61 were killed, 540 homes and businesses were destroted or damaged. This showed the dangers of  complacency and remaining anywhere near the shore when a warning is issued Warning system weaknesses Not all large quakes produce tsunamis Snall quakes may trigger under sea landslides that will cause tsunamis Need way to determine if tsunamis are actually generated Waves not detected on deep ocean surgace Deep ocean assessment and reporting of tsunamis (DART)- goes satellite- tsunami data telemetry- buoy  censors Damage from previous tsunamis sho areas at risk from future ones- tsunamis from 1964 good Friday EQ  struck areas in pacific northwest- warning was issued- 16m tsunami- 11 killed But based on this tragedy a haward map and evacuation plan was produced for the town Locally Generated Tsunamis Tsunamis generated by nearby earthquakes do not allow enough time for a warning to be issued o Happened in Alaska and kracatua Cascadia subduction zone Potential for large earthquake Geological evidence for tsunami in 1700 o Earthquake generated here would reach coast in minutes The closer you are to the tsunami source, the less time you have to get away Places like Hawaii have tsunami hazards signs o Requires education for residence and visitors Japan has suffered many tsunamis o Often locally generated Tsunamis arrive before any warning
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o 1993 Hokkaido- tsunami arrived within 3 minutes of EQ, many caught fleeing to higher ground0  202 died Many towns in Japan have “tsunami walls” Indian Ocean Tsunamis are less frequent than in the pacific No way to disseminate warnings from seismologists Nations will establish an Indian ocean warning system First step in worldwide system US will as 32 more DART buoys Volcanoes- where, how, why What is a volcano o A vent that erupts magma in the form of lava or ash o Range from long, low fissures (cracks in crust) to mountains up to 22,000 feet high Type of volcano depends on amount of silica and gas in the magma How melting occurs o dry pressure-release melting- when hot mantle rises, it’s temperature may hit the melting point at  shallow depths o has to do with mantle temperature and melting temperature How rock melts o If water is added to the mantle, its melting temperature will change Wet or flux melting occurs in subduction zones
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