Denaturing a protein results in loss of function Enzymes proteins that make

Denaturing a protein results in loss of function

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- Denaturing a protein results in loss of function - Enzymes= proteins that make many chemical reactions possible in living organisms; facilitate/speed up chemical reactions - Functions of Proteins - Messenger molecules: Ghrelin, insulin - Not all proteins- estrogen, testosterone=lipids) - Receptors - Transport proteins - Contractile proteins - Antibodies - Structural proteins - Storage proteins - Toxins or poisonous compounds Nucleic Acid= are the information bearing molecules of all life on earth - DNA and RNA are polymers composed of nucleotides - Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)= is composed of the following nucleotides; double stranded; form base pairs through hydrogen bonding - Adenine and Thymine - Form two hydrogen bonds - Guanine and Cytosine - Form three hydrogen bonds (more energy to be pulled apart) - Adenine and Guanine are purines (2 rings) - Thymine and Cytosine are pyrimidines (1 ring) - Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)= is composed of the following nucleotides; single stranded; forms base pairs through hydrogen bonding - Adenine and Uracil - Cytosine and Guanine Differences between DNA and RNA DNA RNA Ribose Sugar Deoxyribonucleic Acid Ribonucleic Acid T and U Thymidine Uracil Strand Double Single
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Scientific/Central Dogma - Lipids= non-polar or very weakly polar organic molecules; not made up of chains of monomers; purposeful for desiccation, cell membrane, energy, and insulation; contain proportionately less oxygen and more hydrogen than carbohydrates; more energy stored in lipids than carbohydrates (C-H bonds than in C-O or O-H bonds) - Include fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes - Fatty acids= consist of a carboxylic acid with a long hydrocarbon chain tail; can be saturated or unsaturated; mostly exist in organisms as triglycerides - Saturated= no double bonds; animal fats, solid at room temp., lard and butter (hydrophobic tail are all carbons and hydrogens) - Unsaturated= one or more double bonds; plant and fish oils, liquid at room temp., vegetable oil and fish oil - Carboxylic acid group is hydrophilic and polar - Hydrocarbon tail is hydrophobic and nonpolar
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- Phospholipids= composed of a polar glycerol head and two non-polar fatty acid tails; what makes up the cell membrane; orient based on polarity - Have both saturated AND unsaturated fat chain - Steroids (sterols)= have four fused carbon rings; signal in the body - Rigid backbone - Wax= composed of a long saturated chain of fatty acids linked to a saturated long chain alcohol (40-60 CH 2 ) - More rigid - Repel water
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