En echelon veins tilt toward direction of shear

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En echelon veins- tilt toward direction of shear Carrot shaped grooves- grooves in slickensides tend to be deeper and wider at one end, the direction of shear is the pointed end Chatter marks- when one fault block moves past another small wedge shaped clocks can be plucked out Pinnate fractures- inclination of pinnate fractures with respect to fault surface defines shear sense Recognizing and Interpreting Faults 13. What is the difference between a fault scarp and a fault line scarp?- A fault scrap is movement or step of topographic surface due to fault and a fault line scarp is a step but is due to erosion differences between two sides of fault 14. What topographic features are associated with strike-slip fault?- fault scarp, sag ponds Recognizing Faults from Subsurface Data- 15. List the ways faults can be recognized from subsurface techniques- Linear anomalies or abrupt change in wavelength Abrupt steps on structure contour maps Excess section(repeat of stratigraphy Zones of brecciated rock in core Seismic reflection profiles, faults are reflectors Changes in Faults with Depth 16. What is the difference between shallow faults and deep ones? Faulting and Stress 17. Draw diagrams illustrating Anderson’s theory of faulting. 18. What are some of the fallacies of Anderson’s theory that limit its applications- it can not be used on rocks with preexisting faults Formation of Listric Faults 19. Why do faults curve- Fluids and Faulting 20. How does fluid in fault zones affect the strength, or the amount of shear stress needed to cause displacement- pore pressure reduces effective stress and lowers rock strength 21. What is the Hubbert-Rubey hypothesis? Fault Systems 22. List all the bold face terms in sections 8.6 – 8.6.6 and table 8.7. Make sure you understand their meaning.
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Faulting and Society 23. In what ways are faults important to resource recovery?- may offset valuable strata (ex: coal), provide fluid flow and barriers for petroleum, zone where mineralization and ores are. 24. List all the bold face terms in section 8.7.2 and make sure you understand their meaning. 25. Why are faults important in land use planning?- it is used to predict areas where ground movement could occur so critical installations will not be built there
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