can lead to both incredibly negative and positive reactions (behavioral instability) ○usual behavior altered ■gesture less than usual, refrain from eye contact, speak rapidly, terminate encounters quickly, nonverbal leakage may occur ○people who believe that they are stigmatized perceive others as reacting negatively to them ●coping strategies ○in interactions, stigmatized people will often induce the non-stigmatized person to behave tactfully towards them and build relationships around the aspects of themselves that is not discredited ○people who are temporarily stigmatized may focus on how they stigma befell them ○people with a stigma that does not force dependency will behave in a non-demanding, non-disruptive manner ○passing: distancing oneself from the stigmatized identity by hiding information Week 4: Socialization Reading: chapter 3 Childhood socialization ● ● Developmental perspective: The Process of Development
16 WEEKS 28 WEEKS 1 YEAR 2 YEARS 3 YEARS VISUAL ACTIVITY Follows objects with eyes; eyes adjust to objects at varying distances Watches activity intently; hand-eye coordination Enjoys watching moving objects (like TV picture) Responds to stimuli in periphery of visual field; looks intently for long periods INTERPERS ONAL Smiles at human face; responds to caregivers voice; demands social attention Responds to variation in tone of voice; differentiates people (fears strangers) Engages in responsive play; shows emotions, anxiety; shows definite preferences for some persons Prefers solitary play; rudimentary concept of ownership Can play cooperatively with an older child; strong desire to please; gender differences start to become prominent in terms of choice of toys and materials VOCAL ACTIVITY Vocalizes pleasure; babbles Vocalizes vowels and consonants; tries to imitate sounds Vocalizes syllables; practices two to eight known words Vocalizes constantly; names actions; repeats words Uses three word sentences; likes novel words BODILY MOVEMENT Can hold head up; can roll over Can sit up Can stand; can climb up and down stairs Can run, large-scale motor activity-- puah, pull, roll Motion fluid, smooth; good coordinations MANUAL DEXTERITY Touches objects Can grasp with one hand; manipulates objects Manipulates objects easily Good control of hand and arm Good fine motor control ● The social learning perspective ○ Focuses on the child's acquisition of cognitive and behavioural skills in interaction with the environment
○ Reinforcement theory: viewpoint emphasizing the adaptive nature of socialization. The infant learns the verbal and interpersonal skills necessary to interact successfully with others. ○ Both nature and nurture influence behaviour. Developmental processes produce a readiness to perform certain behaviours. ● The interpretive perspective ○ This perspective views the child's task as the discovery of the meanings common to the social group.
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