1 major research areas in cognitive psychology 1

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1. Major Research Areas in Cognitive Psychology 1) Perception Perception refers to interpretation of what we take in through our senses. The way we perceive our environment is what makes us different from other animals and different from each other. 2) Memory Sensory memory refers to the information we receive through the senses. This memory is very brief lasting only as much as a few seconds. Short term memory (STM) takes over when the information in our sensory memory is transferred to our consciousness or our awareness. This is the information that is currently active. Long term memory (LTM) is most similar to the permanent storage of a computer. LTM is relatively permanent and practically unlimited in terms of its storage capacity. Its been argued that we have enough space in our LTM to memorize every phone number in the U.S. and still function normally in terms of remembering what we do now. 3) Thinking Sternberg (1988) argued that there are a number of ways to demonstrate intelligence or adaptive functioning. He proposed a model of intelligence referred to as the triarchic theory. According to this model there are three types of intelligence: (1) analytical, or the ability to solve a problem by looking at its components; (2) creative, the ability o use new or ingenious ways to solve problems; and (3) practical, referring to street smarts or common sense. While most IQ tests measure only analytical intelligence, they fail to include practical intelligence, which is the most understandable to most of us. E. Humanistic Psychology 8
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Personality Humanistic psychology focuses on the various theories related to motivation. It focuses on human experience and human fulfillment. It emphasizes the individual’s innate potential to grow and develop. Where does the energy, the drive, or the direction come from? Motivation is an area of psychology that has gotten a great deal of attention, especially in the recent years. There are several distinct theories of motivation. The most common of these comes from the humanistic approach. Humanistic theory is perhaps the most well know theory of motivation. According to this theory, humans are driven to achieve their maximum potential and will always do so unless obstacles are placed in their way. These obstacles include hunger, thirst, financial problems, safety issues, or anything else that takes our focus away from maximum psychological growth. The best way to describe this theory is to utilize the famous pyramid developed by Abraham Maslow (1970) called the Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow believed that humans have specific needs that must be met and that if lower level needs go unmet, we cannot possible strive for higher level needs. The Hierarchy of Needs shows that at the lower level, we must focus on basic issues such as food, sleep, and safety. Without food, without sleep, how could we possible focus on the higher level needs such as respect, education, and recognition?
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