is vitally important that treatment begins as soon as possible after diagnosis

Is vitally important that treatment begins as soon as

This preview shows page 400 - 405 out of 594 pages.

is vitally important that treatment begins as soon as possible after diagnosis has been established. The aquaculturist will need to seek specialist advice as soon as any abnormal behaviour or unhealthy condition is noted. This means that good manage- ment practices need to be routinely adopted. The palatability of fisheries antimicrobial compounds receives only scant atten- tion. Whereas it is accepted that little can be done to improve the palatability of the active ingredient, effort could be directed towards improving binders and bulking agents, which are commonly contained in proprietary mixes. Perhaps, consideration could be given to using chemical attractants. Application by the water-borne route becomes necessary if the fish refuse to eat, and, therefore, would be unHkely to consume any medicated food. With these methods, the fish are exposed to solutions/suspensions of the drug for a
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382 Bacterial Fish Pathogens O OH O O ID O , 0 H o XTi T3 c^ > en 2 05 15 > en 0 7 ir^ >. c^ T3 0 ^^ c2 en 0 0 0 1 0 ^ 0 1 ^^ 0 ^^ CO 1 (N oc 1 O H 0 0 1 OC ^^ c/T >. 0 7 0 0 ^ 0 1 0 C/5 0 ^ 0 s^ en 0 .3? 'S ^ >. T3 0 ^ a ir^ T3 ' 0 (U O H en ^ en < ^ 0 bO ^ >. T3 0 bO 0 ( N T3 en c^ T3 0 _bO 0 bO M 0 0 0 ^^ c^ T3 7 ^ en 0 bO 0 0 7 (N rt c^ en c^ 0 0 0 0 0 bO ' 0 0 bO 0 ( N XTi T3 0 en < ^ 0 bO ^ >. T3 0 bO 0 ^^ XTi ^ ^ en < ^ 0 bO ^ a \o 0 1 ^^ 1 (N zn >> oj Oj C/5 < ^ bO ^ >. T3 0 bO a 0 ^ 05 ^ 'o U ' — 1 bO en" 'en 0 rt ^ ^H ^ tLH C^ (L) 05 ^ ; i ^ f- 0 ^H rt E (L) en (L) •^ T3 ^^ 'bb rt E en 'S _o 'C 0 0 r^ 0 rt ^ s p^ w en" 'C c^ rt 0 (U 03 0 P H 05 0 bO 03 0 03 ^ en 'S5 0 0 ' zn _o ' ^ H ^ > rS en en ^H '^ en" 'S 0 05 03 O H en 'en 05 'en 0 _o ' 0 0 0 0 0 ^ ^ o pq pq 05 'en 'C ^ > ^ > s p^ w rt E 03 OH OS PP O PP rt p l ^ 0 x 0 a ^ 'S 0 15 N (U rt o3 ^H 0 s < < PP u OH u 'o OS X o ; j ^ 0 >. 0 X 0 Q OS X 0 0 rt W w E o O tin
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Control 383 ^ ^H rt c^ cn rt a ^ 'o o c^ •g (U o OH en O 'Eh ^ ^H (U T3 rt ^ B 05 d J2) i r ^ O O ^ O I l c ^ X ) 5 ^ 0 > r t ^ _ D o O O o •2 ^ ^^ ^ n R O ^- S. •- 3 ^- . ^ .> ^- ^ a S IBS fS '5 o 1 ^ ^ ' J - | | S en en O c/T ^ .y ^ § P I 2 I " -s I g & ^ 8 I I I S I i I i ^1 ^ ^ I (U 0 c^ G c^ G tLH (U G 0 3 'o N C^ G tLH XTi ^H 0 ^ OH 0 0 ,G ' 0 a c^ G G 'X\ 0 i^ 15 G ^ X\ 0 0 ^H T3 G 'N OH _G '0 .a 0 0 'G ; j ^ 0 0 _G 0 X 0
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384 Bacterial Fish Pathogens ID o O T3 o o O OH O >. c^ T3 (N 1 O 5—( en ^ o bO ^ B o o T ir^ en >. T3 *^ 1 T3 ^ en c^_i o B o 1 05 >. C^ T3 O c^ ^ ^ 05 C ^ <^ O ^ B o en c^ T3 1 CO C^ ^ ^ en c^ <^ O ^ a O C^ T3 O 1 ^ 05 O bO B ir^ 1 O >. c^ T3 O (N i . en yin <^ o bO , i ^ B o o <^ 1 o o en >. T3 ^ 7 o ^ H 05 ^ o bO ^ O o 7 ir^ 05 >. c2 >> c^ ^ ^ en c^ O bO B Q ^ pq 0 (U PH 05 'en O tLH (U 3 OH OH C^ rt O rt pq 'o PH O 'bb o B en" 'en ^ O p^ w (U O ^ ^ '^ en (L) ^ PH 05 'en 'C 'B SH en en 'en O o 'o o o o (L) (U >. 05 B o c/:) 'C t j c^ O o B 'B OH en O 'bb o (L) C^ ffi B ^ w en" 'C o en en (L) O ^ PP ^ r ^ 'o N c^ X o ^ '^ en en (U O '^ c/:) d" 'B (U OH O 'bb o B en" cH ^^^ (U ,rt ' N c^ ^ (U B ^ '^ 05 (LT _rt OH 05 'S o en" 'S O o O oT 'en _o 'C (U O o >. B 'en O oT 'C o P-f U o t^ H 05 O _o 'o o o o o (L) en s p^ w H
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Control 385 predetermined period. This may be only briefly, i.e. a few seconds duration ("dip"), or for many minutes to several hours ("bath"). It is essential that the compounds are soluble or, if insoluble, are dispersed evenly in the water by means of surfactants or other dispersants (Austin et al, 1981). Also, seawater cations may well antagonise antimicrobial compounds in seawater (Barnes et al, 1995). One major drawback, however, concerns the disposal of the spent compound. Ideally, it should not be
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