Efforts were made to construct clear and precise items in order to avoid

Efforts were made to construct clear and precise

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understanded. Efforts were made to construct clear and precise items in order to avoid ambiguity. Construct validity was measured by administering a few questionnaires to some respondents and analyzing the results to evaluate whether the questionnaire measures what it is required to measure. Criterion validity was measured by analyzing outcome provided by the data collected using the questionnaires. 3.6.1 Reliability of the Instruments Reliability is the extent or level of uniformity with which an instrument assesses a variable (Mugenda & Mugenda, 1999). In order to test the dependability of the tool to be used in the study, the split-half method was used where the investigator randomly divided all items that intend to evaluate the same paradigm into two sets. The researcher administered the entire tool to a chosen number of people and worked out the count for either half. The split half dependability assessment is basically the relationship between these two counts. The researcher randomly divided the test into two portions using an ordinary-out of the ordinary approach. Each half had the same number of questions as the other. Reliability index was calculated using the Cronbach alpha (rα). A dependability of 0.8 and higher is said by many scholars to be okay. rα = ( k ) ( 1 – Σαj 2 ) k-1 α 2 where αj = variance of one test item, k represents the total number of test items, Σ is the sum 30
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3.7 PILOT TESTING. To ensure that the instruments are reliable and valid, a pilot study involving ten (10) randomly selected respondents with similar characteristics as the target population obtained from SMEs was carried out. This was based on the recommendations of Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) that a sample of 10% is adequate for piloting. The pilot study assisted the researcher in making the necessary corrections on the instruments to ensure the questions were accurate and consistent and correctly capture the objectives of the study before carrying out the actual research. These respondents were not included in the final sample for the study. This helped eliminate any typing errors. The questionnaire should be precise and to the point to curb some respondents from refusing to comply and fatigue. The results of the pilot phase was used to improve the questionnaire and offer feasibility test hence ensure improved results. After all this was done research process proceeded followed by screening forms that was randomly distributed to determine eligible respondents for the survey. The data should not be collected for a period exceeding 4 weeks. In course of the research I randomly approached and administer the questionnaires to potential predetermined respondents within Kutus town. 3.8 DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS Preliminary editing was done where the data was checked for accuracy and errors committed. Clarity and legibility of all questions was established and questions with ambiguous responses eliminated. The collected data was examined by use of expressive statistics which consisted of weighted average and percentages. Correlation and regression was used to find out the relationships between the variables. For the unstructured type of
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