Although they live in small local communities every

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8. Counter-school culture Author: Paul Willis Book: Learning to Labour: How working-class kids get working-class job
Fieldwork in Hammertown, an industrial town in England This culture is prevalent in “the lads” opposition towards authority and rejection of conformistlooking for “the laff”obsessed with alcohol, cigarettes, and objectifying women trying to quickly enter adulthood and starting to work at an early age Example: Entrenched in working-class job (because of lack of education but demand for money to fulfill their desires in vices) women as objects for sexual satisfaction Significance: being part of a working culture re-affirm one’s place in capitalism, instead of challenging it lack of education (go to school for fun) Get working class job to spend money on vices Sexism Racism (fight with immigrants?) (distinct barrier between different racial groups) 9. Restrictive covenants Massey and Denton, certain rules created by “neighborhood improvement organizations” which exclude certain groups from living in their neighborhoods, typically African Americans and other minorities. Predominantly affluent and white communities would prevent real estate agents from selling to minorities Legally prevent minorities from living in communities, maintains segregation at a legal and local level 10. Redlining HOLC: Home Owners’ Loan Corporation 11. Segmentary opposition Evans Pritchard- Introduction into African Political Systems The idea that as you break a group down into smaller and smaller segments, small divisions and groups are created. Example: UC Berkeley -> undergraduate student -> freshman -> Unit 1 -> Dorm -> Floor -> Room Broken down into smaller and smaller groups and divisions Evans Pritchard discusses the Nuer, and Nuerland is broken down into segments Nations, tribes, sections of villages, groups of villages within those sections, villages, families and kinship groups, etc. Society is divided into various groups at multiple scales
12. “All that is solid melts into air.”: Marx-Angles; shift between feudalism and capitalism B. Essay Questions Study the following 8 essay questions. The exam will ask you to answer 3 out of 4 of them. Your answers should be based primarily on the readings and lectures. Broad generalizing arguments must be supported by specific examples. You can use aspects of the films as optional examples.

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