Sushma rawal 16 computer system operation io devices

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SUSHMA RAWAL 16 Computer-System Operation I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently. Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type. Each device controller has a local buffer. CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller. Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt
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SUSHMA RAWAL 17 Common Functions of Interrupts Interrupt transfers control to the interrupt service routine generally, through the interrupt vector , which contains the addresses of all the service routines. Interrupt architecture must save the address of the interrupted instruction. Incoming interrupts are disabled while another interrupt is being processed to prevent a lost interrupt . • A trap is a software-generated interrupt caused either by an error or a user request. An operating system is interrupt driven.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 18 Operating-System Structures System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure
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SUSHMA RAWAL 19 System Components Process Management Main Memory Management File Management I/O System Management Secondary Management • Networking Protection System Command-Interpreter System
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SUSHMA RAWAL 20 Process Management • A process is a program in execution. A process needs certain resources, including CPU time, memory, files, and I/O devices, to accomplish its task. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with process management. Process creation and deletion. process suspension and resumption. Provision of mechanisms for: process synchronization process communication
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SUSHMA RAWAL 21 Main-Memory Management Memory is a large array of bytes, each with its own address. It is a repository of quickly accessible data shared by the CPU and I/O devices. Main memory is a volatile storage device. It loses its contents in the case of system failure. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connections with memory management: Keep track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by whom. Decide which processes to load when memory space becomes available. Allocate and deallocate memory space as needed.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 22 File Management A file is a collection of related information defined by its creator. Commonly, files represent programs (both source and object forms) and data. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connections with file management: File creation and deletion.
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