Lower level employees may be empowered to make minor

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Invitation to Computer Science
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Chapter 17 / Exercise 3
Invitation to Computer Science
Gersting/Schneider
Expert Verified
magazines is trivial. Lower-level employees may be empowered to make minor decisions, but the key policy decisions may be as centralized as in the past. 4.2 Rapidity of Change: Reduced Response Time to Competition Information systems have helped to create much more efficient national and international markets. The now-more-efficient global marketplace has reduced the normal social buffers that permitted businesses many years to adjust to competition. 4.3 Maintaining Boundaries: Family, Work, and Leisure The danger to ubiquitous computing, telecommuting, nomad computing, and the “do anything anywhere” computing environment is that it might actually come true. If so, the traditional boundaries that separate work from family and just plain leisure will be weakened. 4.4 Dependence and Vulnerability Today, our businesses, governments, schools, and private associations, such as churches, are incredibly dependent on information systems and are, therefore, highly vulnerable if these systems fail. 4.5 Computer Crime and Abuse New technologies, including computers, create new opportunities for committing crime by creating new valuable items to steal, new ways to steal them, and new ways to harm others. 4.5.1 Computer crime is the commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system. 4.5.2 Computer abuse is the commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but that are considered unethical eg spamming 4.6 Health Risks: RSI, CVS, and Technostress Such health risks include: 4.6.1 Repetitive stress injury (RSI) . RSI occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions often with high-impact loads (such as tennis) or tens of thousands of repetitions under low-impact loads (such as working at a computer keyboard). The most common kind of computer-related RSI is carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS ) , in which pressure on the median nerve through the wrist’s bony structure, called a carpal tunnel, produces pain. The pressure is caused by constant repetition of keystrokes 6
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Invitation to Computer Science
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Chapter 17 / Exercise 3
Invitation to Computer Science
Gersting/Schneider
Expert Verified
4.6.2 Computer vision syndrome (CVS) refers to any eyestrain condition related to computer display screen use. Its symptoms, which are usually temporary, include headaches, blurred vision, and dry and irritated eyes. 4.6.3 Technostress , which is stress induced by computer use. Its symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and fatigue. According to experts, humans working continuously with computers come to expect other humans and human institutions to behave like computers, providing instant responses, attentiveness, and an absence of emotion. TECHNOLOGY TRENDS THAT RAISE ETHICAL ISSUES Information technology has heightened ethical concerns, taxed existing social arrangements, and made some laws obsolete or severely crippled. Information technologies and systems have also created new opportunities for criminal behavior and mischief. There are four key technological trends responsible for these ethical stresses.

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