Salvation and personal growth rather than

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salvation, and personal growth rather than proselytizing to wayward Catholics and Jews about abandoning their heretical beliefs to avoid mortal damnation. d. Correct answer. Liberal Protestants attempted to proclaim that Darwinism was an updated, authentic, and grander revelation of the ways of God. These acommodationist Liberal Protestants feared that denying the veracity of evolution would alienate educated believers. The reconciliation of persuasive scientific theories and discoveries, such as Darwinism, with biblical teachings was accomplished by liberal Protestants asserting that these scientific theories and discoveries represented contemporary revelations of the majestic, authentic, and rational designs of God. e. Liberal Protestants did not use Darwinism as an intellectual argument to exclude women from becoming members of the Protestant clergy. The debate over women's eligibility to serve in the Protestant ministry remained focused on interperting Biblical passages concerning teaching and leadership roles. Question 9 a. Tuition paid by undergraduate students and fees charged to students served by the universities did not represent two major sources of funding facilitating the emergence of powerful new American research universities during the last thirty years of the nineteenth century. The revenue obtained from undergraduate students and fees were insufficient to acquire the land, construct and develop the research laboratories, and hire the faculty necessary to finance the development and growth of these major American research universities. b. Correct answer. The Morrill Act of 1862 and the Hatch Act of 1887 prompted the establishment of over a hundred colleges and universities, including the University of California (1868), Ohio State University (1870), and the University of Massachusetts. The Morrill Act provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states that allowed states to create land-grant colleges, most of which became state universities. The agricultural research, advanced by these state land grant colleges, received further support from the Hatch Act of 1887, which provided federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges. Wealthy philanthropic industrialists, such as John D. Rockefeller and Leland Stanford Junior, were among the industrial millionaires who donated approximately $150 million, between 1878 and 1898, to establish and develop these new American research universities such as the University of Chicago (1892) and Stanford University (1891).
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c. The federal Morrill Act (1862) and the federal Hatch Act (1863) did propel the creation and development of state land-grant colleges and universities and advanced agricultural research. However, neither the federal government nor local communities were the sources of the hundreds of millions of direct philanthropic dollars that established and advanced the graduate professional and technical schools in late nineteenth century America. These newly
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