By the end of March, the Syrian government forces with support from Russia and Iran successfully captured Palmyra from the ISIL.  By early July 2016, the truce was said to have mostly unraveled, violence again escalated, and the fighting between all the major parties to the conflict continued.  At the end of July 2016, the fighting between the government and Islamist rebels in and around Aleppo intensified . On 12 August 2016, the Syrian Democratic Forces fully captured Manbij from ISIL. Some days later, the SDF announced a new offensive towards Al-Bab, which could eventually connect the Kurdish regions in Northern Syria.  A few days after, the battle of al-Hasakah began. On 22 August, the Kurdish YPG, having captured Ghwairan, the only major Arab neighborhood in Hasaka that had been in government hands, launched a major assault to seize the last government-controlled areas of the northeastern Syrian city of Hasaka, after a Russian mediation team failed to mend the rift between the two sides;  the next day the capture of the city was completed.  A few days prior, the Pentagon admonished the Syrian government against "interfering with coalition forces or our partners" in that region, adding that the U.S. had the right to defend its troops.  On 24 August 2016, Turkey's armed forces invaded Syria in the Jarabulus area controlled by ISIL starting what the Turkish president called Operation Euphrates Shield , aimed against, according to his statement, both the IS and Kurdish "terror groups that threaten our country in northern Syria".  The Syrian government denounced the intervention as a "blatant violation of its sovereignty" and said that "fighting terrorism isn’t done by ousting ISIS and replacing it with other terrorist organizations backed directly by Turkey".  Partial ceasefire (26 February–July 2016) Defense ministers of Russia, Iran and Syria in a tripartite meeting in Tehran SDF advances and Turkish military intervention (August 2016 – October 2016)
The PYD leader Salih Muslim said that Turkey was now in the "Syrian quagmire" and would be defeated like IS.  Speaking in Ankara the same day, US vice president Joe Biden indirectly endorsed Turkey's move and said that the U.S. had made it clear to the Syrian Kurdish forces that they should move back east across the Euphrates, or lose US support.  As Turkish troops and the Turkish-aligned Syrian rebels took control of Jarablus and moved further south towards the Syrian town of Manbij, they clashed with the Kurdish YPG, which led the U.S. officials to voice concern and issue a warning to both sides.  On 29 August, U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter specified that the U.S. did not support Turkey's advance south of Jarablus.  The warning as well as an announcement made by the U.S. of a tentative ceasefire between the T urkish forces and the Kurds in the area of Jarablus were promptly and angrily dismissed by Turkey's officials.
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- Spring '18
- Afshan Saleem
- ISIL, Syrian government, Free Syrian Army, Syrian Arab Army