we may be interested in characteristics that belong to one group considered as

We may be interested in characteristics that belong

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-we may be interested in characteristics that belong to one group, considered as a single entity -ie gangs Organizations Ie corporations Social Interactions -sometimes social interactions are the relavent units of analysis -what goes on between individuals Social Artifacts -any product of social beings or their behaviour Ie; books, buildings, cars etc. Units of Analysis in Review -infinite amounts of units of analysis Faulty Reasoning about Units of Analysis: the ecological fallacy and reductionism -each represent a potential pitfall regarding units of anaysis and either can occur in doing research and drawing conclusions from the results The Ecological Fallacy -erroneosly drawing conclusions about individuals solely from the observation of groups -ecological referd to groups or sets or systems, larger then individuals -ecological fallacy is the assumptionm THAT something learned about an ecological Unit says something about the individuals making up that unit. -individualistic fallacy -some people who approach social research for the first time have trouble reconciling general patterns of attitudes or actions with indivudal exceptions -but generalizations and probabilistic statements are not invalidated by individual exceptions Reductionism -a fault of some researchers: a strict limitation of the kinds of concepts to be considered relevabt to the phenomenon under study -involved attempts to explain a particular phenomenon in terms of limites and or lower order concepts -simply to limited
-sociobiology us a orinme example of reductionism, suggesting all social phenomena can be explained in terms of biological factors Time Dinmension -time plays many roles in the design and execution of research, quite aside from the time is takes to do research -also effects trhe generalizability of research findings Cross Sectional studies -involves observations of a sample or cross section, of a population or phenomenon that are made at one point and time -ie; a single US Census -many explanatory studies are cross sectional -problem of onbly viewing a `snapshot” in time Longitudinal Studies -m designed to permit observations of the same phenomenon over extended period of time Trend Studies -a trend study is a type of longitudinal study that examines changes within a population over tume -ie; US census over a period of decades showing shifts in the makeup of a national population Cohort studies - A researcher examines specific subpopulations or cohorts as they change over time - Typically a cohort is an age group but can also be other time groupings Panel Studies -examines the same set of people each time, several points in time Comparing the Three types of Longitudinal Studies Looking at religious affiliation - A trend study might look at shifts in US religious affiliation over time on a regular basis - Cohort study might follow this among `depressions generation (people aged 20-30 years old in 1932 (does this every 10 years) - Panel study start with sample of whole population or of some special subset and study those

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