27. Homeostatic compensations for changes in salt and water balance follow the law of mass balance. Fluid and solute added to the body must be removed, and fluid and solute lost from the body must be replaced. However, perfect compensation is not always possible 28. The body’s pH is closely regulated because pH affects intracellular proteins, such as enzymes and membrane channels. 29. Acid intake from foods and acid production by the body’s metabolic processes are the biggest challenge to body pH. The most significant source of acid is CO2 from respiration, which affects pH and combines with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). 30. In acidosis, the kidneys secrete H+ and reabsorb HCO3-. 31. In alkalosis , the kidneys secrete HCO3- and reabsorb H+. 32. Intercalated cells in the collecting duct are responsible for the fine regulation of acid-base balance. 33. Hypoventilation causes respiratory acidosis. 34. Due to respiratory metabolic alkalosis the body retains less Co2. Alkalosis is also due to prolong vomiting. 35. Emphysema patients will exhibit signs of respiratory acidosis. 36. Hyperventilation patients will exhibit respiratory alkalosis. 37. Mountain climber at high altitude may develop respiratory alkalosis. 38. Sympathetic activation: patients is about to go to surgery to remove a tumor in the chest 2 hours before surgery may begin with “jitters” which cause elevated heart rate, and BP, increase breathing, cold sweats, and urge urination. 2
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read both pages?
- Fall '19
- Physiology, ECF, Vasopressin, loop of Henle