Communication networks (p. 500-502)Is an identifiable pattern of communication within and between organizations, whether using formal or informal channels Barriers to communication (p. 503-07)Improving communication (p.507-511)Improving your listening skills oListening rather than talking yourself oBe more open-minded oDevelop empathy oListen actively oObserve nonverbal cues Improving your sending skills oSimplify your languageoOrganize your writing oUnderstand your audience Communication & negotiation (p. 511-14).NegotiationProcess of conferring to arrive at an agreement between different parties, each with their own interests and preferences
Two negotiation activities-Day-to-day activities of the managers organizational unit-Part of a formally appointed negotiating team representing unit or organizationAchieving Effective NegotiationsChap. 12: Individual and Group Decision MakingDifference between decision making, formulation, and solution (p. 301-02)decision making - “a processof specifying the nature of a particular problemor opportunityand selecting among available alternatives to solve a problemor capture an opportunity.” -Hitt, Black & PorterThe 7 steps in the Rational/Classical decision-making model (pp.302-08)Step 1 – Indentifying decision situationsoMay be viewed as problems or opportunities.oProblem = when a manager detects a gap between existing and desired performance.oOpportunity = when a manager detects a chance to achieve a more desirable state than the current one.Step 2 – Developing objectives & criteriaoIdentify specific criteria (i.e. what is important in the outcome).oWhen several criteria are involved, assigning weights might be necessary.oExample: You are looking to hire a door-to-door salesperson for your vacuum cleaner company. What qualities should your ideal candidate possess?Step 3 – Generating alternativesoPast solutionscan often be effectiveoBut, sometimes new situations require creative new solutionsoExample: product knowledge vs. interpersonal skills.Step 4 – Analyzing alternativesoDetermine which would produce minimally acceptable results.oEliminate those that do not make the cut.oExamine the feasibility of remaining alternatives.oDetermine which of these is likely to produce best results.Step 5 – Selecting alternativesoModel argues that managers will choose the alternative that maximizes the desired outcome – also known as Subjectively Expected Utility (SEU).oBoth expected outcomeAND probabilitythat alternative can be implemented factor into decisionoExample: If Marta is a better job candidate than Juan, but is unlikely to take the job, then she isn’t really the better candidate.
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