Orientation or Adaptive ServiceOrientation services are provided to help students adjust better in any new environment (Makinde, 1990). At the beginning of each academic year, new students are admitted into primary, secondary, training colleges and other tertiary institutions. Many of these students get lost socially and psychologically in their new environment. This is because they no longer enjoy the psychological support of parents, friends, and formal teachers. Also the new environment with its rules, regulations and administrative set up, appears completely
18 different. Orientation service is, therefore, designed to help students make adjustments during such critical transition periods. Programmes are drawn up to familiarize them with the overall school situation. They are introduced to physical plants, administrative setup, rules and regulations governing student conducts, the use of school facilities, new course contents teaching staff and how the school guidance programme can serve their needs. In schools where there are guidance coordinators, orientation service enable new students to interact with their guidance coordinators for the first time (Taylor & Buku, 2006). Appraisal or Data Collection ServiceThe appraisal service is designed to collect, analyze and use variety of objective and subjective personal psychological and social data about each student. It is for the purpose of better understanding of students in order to assist them to understand themselves (Shertzer & Stone, 1981). Without adequate and reliable information on any individual, it will be a difficult task to help the individual solve his problem or plan realistically. It is also a way of helping an individual to acquire and organize useful information about him. This helps him to know his strengths and weaknesses to enable him make reasonable choices from all alternatives at his disposal (Makinde, 1990). Systematic analysis of student’s information permits teachers, counsellors, parents and school authorities to help students. This can only be realized through sound techniques of collecting, organizing, interpreting and using relevant student information.
19 Information or Distributive ServiceWhile the appraisal service collects information about the student, the information service gives information to the students (Shertzer & stone, 1981). These services aim at providing students with better knowledge of educational, vocational and social opportunities. When this is done, it enables students to make informed decisions and choices. The main objective of the information service is to stimulate individual student to evaluate themselves and their opportunities. The service also aims at making feasible choice in the light of students’ unique characteristics and opportunities. This helps the student to accept responsibilities for the choice and initiate a course of action in consonance with the choice. Information service may be educational, vocational, social, recreational, emotional or moral (Olayinka, as cited in Makinde, 1990).