• In the past, when there was a clear divide in gender roles, children who were attached to a woman did better developmentally • More recent studies show that gender is not important, the actual attachment to the caregiver is more important Diversity in the Family
• Diversity of types of family: single, married, co-habitating, grandparent’s involvement, divorced • Diversity of families: racial/ethnic, religious, religion, culture • These all impact the values and norms emphasized within the home Peers as Agents of Socialization • As children get older, they are influenced by their peers much more • Form relationships on their own terms (choose their own friends) • Interactions can be spontaneous • Interactions without direct adult supervision • Less of a power dynamic than family (need to obey family, parents talk to you freely but make sure you know who is in charge) • For a long period of time, this choosing of friends is almost arbitrary. Parents choosing the friends of their children by organizing ‘playdates’ • Peers have a greater ability to help build one’s identity School as an Agent of Socialization • Function of school is to socialize • Exposure to a different set of skills and expectations • How to meet deadlines, how to interact with teachers and principals • Public evaluation and social comparison- often our first experience of being publically evaluated. Learn to judge our performance against others in the class • Learning to improve, learning about fairness, and impacts the sense of self • Effects the person they are to become Mass Media as an Agent of Socialization • Only recently has it become more influential • Children are much more exposed to media every day (average 2 hours a day) • Shapes our perceptions and out ‘scripts’ • We are able to see what appropriate behaviours in certain situations are What is a Script? • A sequence of behaviours, actions, and consequences that are expected in a particular situation • Scripts rely on our prior knowledge to help us navigate our social situations and include behaviours, roles and props • Media shows us the proper behaviour, and then you develop a script so you know what to do in this situation (ex: media showing us a cartoon of someone getting on the bus: what the bus driver does, what you should do, pulling the cord when you want to get off) Processes of Socialization Instrumental Conditioning
• Aka Operant Conditioning • A process wherein a person learns what response to make in a situation in order to obtain a positive reinforcement or avoid a negative reinforcement • Ex: when a child takes their first steps and sees that their parents are very happy, they are likely to continue doing this • We learn proper behaviours and actions through this • Entrinsic and intrinsic motivation- entrinsic (someone giving a reward or punishment) and intrinsic (internal rewards, gaining a sense of satisfaction or pride) • Self-efficacy- gained through repeated successes of a particular activity •
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