In the past when there was a clear divide in gender roles children who were

In the past when there was a clear divide in gender

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In the past, when there was a clear divide in gender roles, children who were attached to a woman did better developmentally More recent studies show that gender is not important, the actual attachment to the caregiver is more important Diversity in the Family
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Diversity of types of family: single, married, co-habitating, grandparent’s involvement, divorced Diversity of families: racial/ethnic, religious, religion, culture These all impact the values and norms emphasized within the home Peers as Agents of Socialization As children get older, they are influenced by their peers much more Form relationships on their own terms (choose their own friends) Interactions can be spontaneous Interactions without direct adult supervision Less of a power dynamic than family (need to obey family, parents talk to you freely but make sure you know who is in charge) For a long period of time, this choosing of friends is almost arbitrary. Parents choosing the friends of their children by organizing ‘playdates’ Peers have a greater ability to help build one’s identity School as an Agent of Socialization Function of school is to socialize Exposure to a different set of skills and expectations How to meet deadlines, how to interact with teachers and principals Public evaluation and social comparison- often our first experience of being publically evaluated. Learn to judge our performance against others in the class Learning to improve, learning about fairness, and impacts the sense of self Effects the person they are to become Mass Media as an Agent of Socialization Only recently has it become more influential Children are much more exposed to media every day (average 2 hours a day) Shapes our perceptions and out ‘scripts’ We are able to see what appropriate behaviours in certain situations are What is a Script? A sequence of behaviours, actions, and consequences that are expected in a particular situation Scripts rely on our prior knowledge to help us navigate our social situations and include behaviours, roles and props Media shows us the proper behaviour, and then you develop a script so you know what to do in this situation (ex: media showing us a cartoon of someone getting on the bus: what the bus driver does, what you should do, pulling the cord when you want to get off) Processes of Socialization Instrumental Conditioning
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Aka Operant Conditioning A process wherein a person learns what response to make in a situation in order to obtain a positive reinforcement or avoid a negative reinforcement Ex: when a child takes their first steps and sees that their parents are very happy, they are likely to continue doing this We learn proper behaviours and actions through this Entrinsic and intrinsic motivation- entrinsic (someone giving a reward or punishment) and intrinsic (internal rewards, gaining a sense of satisfaction or pride) Self-efficacy- gained through repeated successes of a particular activity
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