○ Researcher’s own ethics ● Animal participants ○ APA ethical principles ○ justification ○ Animal review boards
BIOLOGY and PSYCHOLOGY- Chapter 2 How the environment affects your biological processes, and how in turn the biological processes respond to the environment. The Nervous System ● Central Nervous System (CNS)- makes sense of the world ○ spinal cord- sends information from sensory neurons to the brain and then back to the motor neurons. The exception is for reflexes, which go directly to the spinal cord ○ brain ■ hindbrain ● brainstem ○ pons- a bridge between the forebrain and the cerebellum ○ reticular formation- alertness and attention ○ medulla oblongata- controls heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing, automatic processes ● cerebellum- skilled movement, posture ■ midbrain ● substantia nigra- dark nuclei of cells that produce dopamine ○ people with Parkinson’s lack this ■ forebrain ● thalamus- relay station from all sensory information to the cerebral cortex; smell is excluded ● hypothalamus- controls hunger, thirst, body temp, pleasure center, sexual behavior, and involved with emotion ● limbic- controls emotions ○ amygdala- linked to reactions of unpleasant stimuli; fear, anger ○ hippocampus- transcribes short term memories to long term memories ■ patient HM ● cerebrum ○ cerebral cortex- surrounds the brain and is involved with thinking, learning, consciousness ■ gray vs. white matter- gray reflects cell bodies and dendrites, white is myelin ■ cerebral hemispheres- left and right ● left controls the right, right controls the left ● left- controls speech and language, and is dominant for math and logic. Very detailed ○ damage to Broca’s area prevents the production of speech (Broca’s aphasia) ○ damage to Wernicke’s area prevents speech from making sense (Wernicke’s aphasia)
● right- adept at visual-spatial relations, music, metaphors, and emotional qualities of speech. Very creative and artistic ■ lobes of the brain ● frontal- contain the controls for speech production (Broca’s area), thinking, planning, reasoning, impulse control, motivation; contains motor cortex ● parietal- contain the somatosensory cortex: pain and touch receptors ● occipital- contain the visual cortex ● temporal- contain the auditory cortex, Wernicke’s area ○ corpus callosum- midway point of the two hemispheres ■ split brain: surgery that is performed to separate the brain ■ the hemispheres can no longer communicate with each other ■ vision from the right goes to the left side of the brain, which corresponds with language and speech. They can say what the word or picture was easily ■ vision from the left goes to the right side of the brain, and they can’t communicate what the word or picture was. However, if asked to draw it with the left hand, they can draw the word or picture easily, though they might not understand why ● Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)- keeps in touch with the world ○
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- Classical Conditioning