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• Work teams can be used when designing jobs.
• Jobs can be designed for place and/or time flexibility.• Telework is leading to more place flexibility and can be regular, brief occasional, ortemporary/emergency.• Shift work, compressed work weeks, part-time positions, job sharing, and flextime can providetime and other schedule flexibility.• Job analysis is a systematic investigation of the content, context, and human requirements of ajob.• Task-based job analysis focuses on the tasks, duties, and responsibilities associated with jobs.• Competency-based job analysis focuses on basic characteristics of performance such as technicaland behavioral competencies.• A number of methods of job analysis are used, with interviews and questionnaires being the mostpopular.• The behavioral reactions of employees and managers along with legal compliance issues must beconsidered as part of job analysis.• The end products of a job analysis are job descriptions, which identify the tasks, duties, andresponsibilities of jobs, and job specifications, which list the knowledge, skills, and abilitiesneeded to perform a job satisfactorily.CRITICAL THINKING CHALLENGES1. Describe how changes in the workforce have been impacting organizations, including organizationsfor which you have recently worked.2. For many individuals, the nature of work and jobs is changing. Describe these changes, some reasonsfor them, and how they are affecting both human resource management and individuals.3. Explain how you would conduct a job analysis in a company that has never had job descriptions.Utilize the O*Net as a resource for your information.4. You have recently assumed the role of Human Resource Manager in your company. In reviewing thecompany records, you note that the job descriptions were last updated five years ago.The company's President has taken the position that there is no need to update the jobdescriptions. However, you also note that the company has grown by 50% during the pastfive years, resulting in many changes, including some in job functions. You want to build abusiness case to convince the President of the need to update the job descriptions. To helpyou build your case, use the information on the purpose of job descriptionsat .A. How can job descriptions be used as a management tool?B. What role do job descriptions have in helping companies comply with various legal issues?CASE