BIOL 1001 Learning Outcomes Final.docx

# That larger organisms will reach reproductive

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that larger organisms will reach reproductive maturity at a later stage in their life and will have slower growth. This is due to the fact that reproducing and having offspring requires a lot of energy. Because the organisms are already using so much energy due to their size, those who reach sexual maturity at younger ages will have a lowered fitness. This demonstrates a fitness tradeoff, the tradeoff being that where one sacrifices their size for rapid growth and young sexual maturity. Organisms with rapid growth rate will also have much more offspring that organisms with slowed growth due to a lowered energy expenditure.

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o In addition, the number of organisms produced per female is determined by the fecundity times the survivorship. The lower the fecundity, the lower the number of organisms produced. Exponential growth shows that a population is increasingly (exponentially) growing for an infinite amount of time (equation is y = 2 x ). Logistic growth model (equation is dN/dt = r max N(K-N)/K) shows that a population will grow increasingly for a set amount of time until it reaches what is known as a carrying capacity. A population’s growth rate will slow as it approaches a carrying capacity, which is a limit on the size of a population due to numerous reasons such as not being enough resources to support a population of such a size. If a population exceeds the carrying capacity, it will decline drastically. o r is greater when b > d, causing the population to have a greater growth rate and reach its carrying capacity quicker. When b < d, r is low, which causes the population to decline. When b = d, r is 0, and so the population will have no net change in size. r max occurs when there is low population density and when density-dependent factors are not having a dramatic effect on a population. As N approaches K, r becomes smaller because the growth rate is decreasing (amount of deaths increasing in proportion to births). o Lag Phase (slow growth), exponential growth phase (fast growth), deceleration phase (slowed growth), stable equilibrium phase (little to not growth) o When there is an increase in a population density, there will be a greater impact of density-dependent factors on a population. As the density increases, the survivorship and/or fecundity will slow. This is can be due to an decreased amount of space between organisms or greater competition amongst individuals for resources. o Carrying capacity is the upper limit on the size of a population that the environment can sustain. It is determined by a number of factors such as space or resource availability. As a population reaches carrying capacity, the growth rate slows. r max is the maximum growth rate a population can reach. o r is the growth rate of a population. As the number of individuals increase, r will also increase. Depending on the conditions in which a population is living in, r can increase, decrease, or remain the same. r can continually increase until the population reaches the carrying capacity, which will cause r to decrease.
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