child sex abuse scandal broke. John Paul’s response was to reward an American cardinal who had assiduously covered up the outrage with a plush posting in Rome. The greatest crime of his papacy, however, was neither his part in this cover-up nor his neanderthal attitude to women. It was the grotesque irony by which the Vatican condemned—as a “culture of death”—condoms, which might have saved countless Catholics in the developing world from an agonising AIDS death. The Pope goes to his eternal reward with those deaths on his hands. He was one of the greatest disasters for the Christian church since Charles Darwin. Eagleton attacks Pope John Paul II’s character and policies. If he is concerned with anything the Pope said (and, hence, which he believes should be accepted), it is only indirectly. As such, it is difficult to judge this as a case where X has said something, is judged unreliable, and so what X said should not be accepted. As an abusive ad hominem, the charges against John Paul are that he was authoritarian (supported by some of his actions), had a “neanderthal” attitude towards women (unsupported), and caused countless deaths (supported by his condemnation of condoms). Like Harris’s attack on Caine in the text, this attack does not meet the challenge required by the criteria for a good ad hominem. Major Exercise 12M 2. Decide whether each of the following passages contains an argument. If it does, assess the reasoning. Identify any instances of argument schemes dealt with in this chapter, explaining whether they fulfill the conditions for good arguments of that form. Note that examples may involve more than one argument form. Diagram all arguments. a) [From a flyer advertising “Astro-Guard Security Systems”] You don’t have to be a statistic! The experts admit “it’s not if you will be the victim of a break-in. . . but WHEN.” Astro-Guard security systems stops burglars before they get inside. one out of four! Those are the statistical chances of you and your family being the victims of a break-in within the next 12 months. . . . Psychiatrists, Psychologists, Criminologists, Security Experts and Police Officials all agree: “The earlier the intruder is discovered, the more effective the security system.” P1 = The experts admit it’s not if you will be the victim of a break-in, but when. HC1= You will be the victim of a break-in.
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