Slavery very effective system to facilitate capitalism.oSocial: creation and institutionalization of racial/ethnic categories (census).oCultural: imposition of modern values and norms (Christianity, education, museum).Linkage between European industrialization and colonialism Industrial Revolution in Europe.oEmergence of new modern technologies: mass transportation (train, steamship) and mass production systems (steam engine).oStrong demand for raw materials in order to facilitate rapid industrialization in Europe.oStrong demand for labourers (slavery).oIs colonialism an inevitable consequence of capital accumulation during industrialization in Europe?Institutionalization(colonial context)oDefinition (colonial context): systematic process of transforming unfamiliar concepts/ideas into something normal and ubiquitous.oNormalization and stabilizationoThe power of institutionalization: once implanted, these external entities became unchallengeable and “real”.oExamples: racial/ethnic divisions.Social DarwinismoCultural logic of colonialism = Social DarwinismoEvolutionist view of human societies.Modern (civilized Western settlers) - primitive (backward natives) binary.oEstablish hegemony of the West = normative political and economic dominance tied to cultural logic.oRole of anthropologists during colonialism = establishing the inferiority of “primitive” cultures.Variation in colonialismoMajor shift from “direct rule” to “indirect rule” in British colonies in the mid-19thcentury.Direct rule(early colonialism): destruction of local cultures = assimilation of natives.Indirect rule(late colonialism): “protection” of local cultures =management of differences.Indirect rule as protecting “natives”?
oRhetoric of “protection”oReality establishing unchallengeable colonial legitimacy and hegemony.Institutionalization of “difference” (Settler-native binary, civilized-primitive binary).Invention and institutionalization of “traditions” and “customs”(tied to native groups).Benedict Anderson Imagined CommunitiesoThree institutions of power:MapCensusMuseumoLinkage between nationalism and modern technologies (colonial inheritance).09/12/18:Reading:Desai, Radhika. 2017. “Theories of Development.” In Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors, Issues, and Practice, Third Edition (edited by Paul A. Haslam et al.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.The economic and financial crises of the early 20thcentury opened a new phase in the history of capitalist development:o1. “Neoliberalism, the free-market dogma responsible for the development of crisis of recent decades, was discredited.”o2. Growth in the rich countries slowed to a near halt while emerging countries continued their rapid growth,o3. Turn, primarily in Latin America during the 2000s, to progressive policies that flout the tenets of neoliberalism and put popular welfare at the centre of the political agenda.