Slavery very effective system to facilitate

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Slavery very effective system to facilitate capitalism. o Social: creation and institutionalization of racial/ethnic categories (census). o Cultural: imposition of modern values and norms (Christianity, education, museum). Linkage between European industrialization and colonialism Industrial Revolution in Europe. o Emergence of new modern technologies: mass transportation (train, steamship) and mass production systems (steam engine). o Strong demand for raw materials in order to facilitate rapid industrialization in Europe. o Strong demand for labourers (slavery). o Is colonialism an inevitable consequence of capital accumulation during industrialization in Europe? Institutionalization (colonial context) o Definition (colonial context): systematic process of transforming unfamiliar concepts/ideas into something normal and ubiquitous. o Normalization and stabilization o The power of institutionalization: once implanted, these external entities became unchallengeable and “real”. o Examples: racial/ethnic divisions. Social Darwinism o Cultural logic of colonialism = Social Darwinism o Evolutionist view of human societies. Modern (civilized Western settlers) - primitive (backward natives) binary. o Establish hegemony of the West = normative political and economic dominance tied to cultural logic. o Role of anthropologists during colonialism = establishing the inferiority of “primitive” cultures. Variation in colonialism o Major shift from “direct rule” to “indirect rule” in British colonies in the mid-19 th century. Direct rule (early colonialism): destruction of local cultures = assimilation of natives. Indirect rule (late colonialism): “protection” of local cultures = management of differences. Indirect rule as protecting “natives”?
o Rhetoric of “protection” o Reality establishing unchallengeable colonial legitimacy and hegemony. Institutionalization of “difference” (Settler-native binary, civilized-primitive binary). Invention and institutionalization of “traditions” and “customs” (tied to native groups). Benedict Anderson Imagined Communities o Three institutions of power: Map Census Museum o Linkage between nationalism and modern technologies (colonial inheritance). 09/12/18: Reading: Desai, Radhika. 2017. “Theories of Development.” In Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors, Issues, and Practice , Third Edition (edited by Paul A. Haslam et al.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. The economic and financial crises of the early 20 th century opened a new phase in the history of capitalist development: o 1. “Neoliberalism, the free-market dogma responsible for the development of crisis of recent decades, was discredited.” o 2. Growth in the rich countries slowed to a near halt while emerging countries continued their rapid growth, o 3. Turn, primarily in Latin America during the 2000s, to progressive policies that flout the tenets of neoliberalism and put popular welfare at the centre of the political agenda.

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