When a cell is in a hypotonic environment where water

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When a cell is in a hypotonic environment, where water is entering the cell (hence building up pressure). The cell wall is strong and is able to hold pressure, whereas the plasma membrane alone would burst due to its inability to hold pressure. What would happen to the solute potential when the molar concentration of the solute is increased (justify with equation)? WHY? When Concentration is INCREASED Solute potential would go DOWN. –iCRT (when C is increased, that is a bigger multiplier to the negative equation) What would happen to the solute potential when Temperature is increased (justify with equation)? WHY? When Temperature is INCREASED Solute potential would go DOWN. –iCRT (when T is increased, that is a bigger multiplier to the negative equation) What would happen to the solute potential when the dissolved substance is glucose vs. NaCl (justify with equation)? WHY?
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When Ionization constant is INCREASED Solute potential would go DOWN. –iCRT (when i is increased, that is a bigger multiplier to the negative equation) NaCl (i=2) glucose (i=1) since NaCl forms two ions when placed in water so its constant is 2 and glucose doesn’t ionize so its constant is 1 Why is water potential important for plants? Allows for the movement of materials through the organism. Drives water up the plant through xylem by transpiration and cohesion-tension theory. Also builds up pressure for translocation of sugar through phloem. While plants have a vascular system, they lack the muscular pump (heart) to move materials and create pressure for them. Predict what would happen to plant and animal cells placed in 0.0M and 4.0M concentration solutions. 0.0M solution = the animal cell would swell and lyse from the pressure since the cell will be unable to reach equilibrium. The plant cell will swell and generate turgor pressure as the plasma membrane presses against the cell wall. 1.0M solution = the animal cell would shrivel. Plasmolysis will occur to the plant cell. The plasma membrane will pull away from the cell wall.
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Δ G = Δ H - T Δ S What is Entropy? = a measurement of Disorder/randomness When Δ S is positive this means there is MORE Disorder/randomness When Δ S is negative this means there is LESS Disorder/randomness What is Δ H? = a measurement of ENTHALPY (change in total energy) What is Gibbs Free energy? = The portion of a system’s energy that can perform work. A measurement of SPONTANEITY When Δ G is positive this means The reaction is endergonic. Energy is consumed and therefore required. Decreases Entropy since you are generating order. Reactions are never spontaneous. Anabolic reactions When Δ G is negative this means The reaction is exergonic. Energy is released. Entropy increases (less order). The reaction is spontaneous. Catabolic reactions Δ G (Joules) Δ H (Joules) T (Kelvin) Δ S (J/K) -500 1000 300 5 -400 1100 300 5 -300 1200 300 5 -200 1300 300 5 -100 1400 300 5 0 1500 300 5 100 1600 300 5 200 1700 300 5 300 1800 300 5 400 1900 300 5 What happens to Δ G when Δ H goes up ? WHY?
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