Movement occurs in two dimensions ii rotational and

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Movement occurs in two dimensions ii. Rotational and lateral movements iii. Flip Flop of lipids from one leaf to anther 1. Flippase: requires energy to do this c. Lipid rafts i. A group of lipids that float together as a unit within a larger sea of lipids 1. Usually have a high amount of cholesterol 2. Play an important role in endocytosis and cell signaling ii. Lipid composition affects membrane fluidity 1. Length of phospholipid tails // shorter tails = more fluidity 2. Double bonds in phospholipid tails // unsaturated // more fluidity
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d. Cholesterol i. Higher temps = cholesterol makes membrane less fluid ii. Lower temperatures = more fluid and prevents from freezing iii. Fluid homeostasis is important, and cholesterol can be used to help maintain it 19) Compare and contrast simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, passive transport, and active transport a. Diffusion is dependent on: i. Size: smaller = faster ii. Polarity: nonpolar = faster iii. Charge: noncharged = faster iv. Concentration: higher = faster b. Passive transport i. Simple diffusion 1. High to low concentration a. Does not require input of energy ii. Facilitated diffusion 1. High to low concentration a. Requires a transport protein c. Active transport i. Low to high concentration 1. Requires a transport protein 2. Input of energy via ATP 20) Describe the process of osmosis, and explain how it affects cell structure a. Osmosis i. Water moves across a membrane from hypotonic to hypertonic ii. Isotonic 1. Equal concentrations iii. Hypertonic 1. Solute concentrations higher outside cell 2. Causes shrinking/shriveling a. Crenation (water exits) 3. Plasmolysis (in plants cells) a. Water exits cell and plasma membrane pulls away from cell wall iv. Hypotonic 1. Solute concentrations higher inside cell 2. Causes swelling a. Osmotic lysis (water enters) 21) Define energy, and distinguish between potential and kinetic energy a. Energy i. The ability to promote change or do work b. Kinetic energy i. Energy of movement c. Potential energy i. The energy that a substance or object possesses due to its structure or location 1. Ex: an electron in an outer shell has more potential energy than an inner shell
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a. Drops to an inner shell = less potential energy + some kinetic energy d. Chemical potential energy (chemical energy) i. The energy that is stored in bonds between atoms 22) State the first and second laws of thermodynamics and understand how they relate to living things a. Thermodynamics i. The study of energy interconversions b. First Law: i. Law of conservation of energy ii. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed c. Second Law: i. Any energy transfer from one form to another increases the degree of disorder 1. Entropy a. More entropy = more ability to promote change or do work 23) Explain how the change in free energy determines the direction of a chemical reaction and how chemical reactions eventually reach a state of equilibrium a. Changes in energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds b. Total energy = usable energy + unusable energy i. Total energy = enthalpy ii. Usable energy = free energy iii.
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  • Fall '19
  • Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate

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