c) The community can benefit when individuals put their well-being first. d) It is not true that people naturally act in their own long-term self-interest. e) Ethical egoism treats all persons as moral equals. 53. According to Kant, our sense of “ought to” is called a) necessity. b) insecurity. c) paranoia.
d) love. e) dutifulness.
54. According to Kant, the moral value of an action depends upon a) its consequences. b) the underlying moral rule. c) how closely it aligns with Biblical teachings. d) how closely it aligns with the law. e) the extent to which it produces happiness. 55. According to the second formulation of the Categorical Imperative, a) the moral worth of a person depends upon that person’s actions. b) one good turn deserves another. c) bad deeds should be punished. d) it is wrong for one person to “use” another. e) the moral worth of a person depends upon that person’s intentions. 56. The Principle of Utility is also called a) the Categorical Imperative. b) the Difference Principle. c) the Greatest Happiness Principle. d) the Social Contract. e) the Ten Commandments. 57. Two philosophers closely associated with utilitarianism are a) Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. b) Immanuel Kant and Jeremy Bentham. c) Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. d) John Stuart Mill and John Rawls. e) Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Rawls. 58. Utilitarianism is an example of a) a consequentialist theory.