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With the opportunity to gain good karma kharma must

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with the opportunity to gain Good Karma?Kharma must be defined by Dharma, righteous conductDogsDogs were valued as descendants of Indra during the Vedicperiod but by the second urbanization, they were considered to bethe lowest of the low and comparable to the ShudrasShudras are generally considered to be in their place dueto deeds committed in their past livesMokshaRelease from the relentless cycle of birth and deathThe soul needs to find Moksha or it will not be able to move on tothe afterlifeBirth and death are prime subjects in South Asian cultureMoksha can be found in the forest with the forest being a place ofnature and orthodoxyForest dwellers retreating from the city find a place tocritique the city from the outsideIndigenous groups can from aside from individuals whomaintain their Indo-Aryan backgrounds and beliefsOnly the forest dwellers can internalize the holy fires (tapas),compared to the brahmins of the Vedic periodCommoners shouldn’t depend on the priests to achievemoksha, they must accomplish this themselvesYou must release your soul from material trappings byshunning them and developing internal tapasGod is everywhere, there is no disconnection between the
world of God and the world of humansTo see this, you must understand the truth of lifeboth individual and broad (free from political ideasand material things)ReincarnationIncreases in the population leads to inquiries about the causes ofthese increasesIf you forget your previous life, you must deduce whetherinconveniences in life are the consequences for past actions,whatever they may be.JainismRituals should be a part of everyday lifeWomen can lead rituals in the houseBrahman and AtmanIn order to understand Moksha, we must understand the two newconcepts that the Upanishads producedBrahman (root word Brih which means vital energy that strengthens andrevitalizes), is that from which all things are bornAtman is the soul in the human beingBrahman is the ultimate reality pervading the Universe and Atman is theultimate reality in the human selfHeterodoxies 600 BCEAside from the Upanishadic sages, the problem of rebirth and releasewere issues around which new doctrines emerged that espoused theprincipal of renunciationHere focus particularly on Jainism and BuddhismJain principlesHow to explain the whole universe is aliveThe soulNot all souls are the same (Plants, animals, people)Souls are divided by how many senses they have(the 5 senses common to humans, animals, andgods), lowest amount of senses are held byenvironmental/elemental factorsJains try to avoid harming animals or anything else with asoulBy hurting something you would accumulate karmaJain Monks accepted donations of food so that theywouldn’t have to harm the animals/plants providedthemselvesWhere do souls go when one achieves salvation?

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Term
Fall
Professor
N/A
Tags
Hinduism, Vedas, History of India, Rigveda, Vedic period

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