Other frameworks Other frameworks that are highly influential in the social

Other frameworks other frameworks that are highly

This preview shows page 31 - 34 out of 44 pages.

Other frameworks . Other frameworks that are highly influential in the social psychology literature have recently been extended to include the role of embodied states in social judgments. One prominent example is Petty and colleagues’ Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM; e.g. Briñol & Petty, 2008) , which proposes that embodied states can influence judgments of outgroups in numerous ways. In the ELM, embodied states may influence judgments through four routes: they may act as “simple cues” (i.e. evidence in and of themselves), influence the amount or valence of thoughts that occur during judgment, or affect the confidence of one’s own thoughts.
Image of page 31
EMBODIED PREJUDICE 32 One recent study (Fleming et al., 2015) focused on the effects of motor processes on confidence, using TMS to manipulate premotor cortex activation either before or after a motor response on a visual discrimination task. In line with the claim that embodied states may increase confidence in a judgment, TMS stimulation to areas of premotor cortex associated with the incorrect response reduced judgment confidence, but not judgment accuracy. In summary, recent frameworks have investigated the question of when embodied effects should occur. First, embodied states are likely to exert their strongest effects on prejudice when they are judged as a “natural response” to the target. Second, recent research suggests that embodied states do not just affect rapid, involuntary responses to outgroups, but more elaborative, controlled processing, as well. Lastly, embodied states have been proposed to influence prejudice through a number of routes, such as increasing confidence. Embodied states and ingroup favoritism. Most definitions of prejudice restrict the phenomenon to a negative evaluation or state towards the outgroup (for list, see Greenwald & Pettigrew, 2014). In a similar manner, most of the research described in the above sections focuses on negative, embodied states that are associated with outgroups. However, recent critics have questioned whether negativity towards the outgroup is necessary—or even common—in many acts of discrimination. For example, in a recent review, Greenwald and Pettigrew (2014) argue that positivity towards the ingroup , rather than negativity towards the outgroup, is the “prime mechanism of discrimination [in the United States]” (p. 670). Greenwald and Pettigrew (2014) effectively point out that most studies within the prejudice literature are unable to validly test their claim. To correct for this limitation, Greenwald and Pettigrew make two methodological suggestions—both of which may be of benefit to social embodiment research. First, dependent measures of prejudice, such as attitudes, should include a
Image of page 32
EMBODIED PREJUDICE 33 “neutral” point that clearly indicates a response towards the outgroup that is “neither favorable nor hostile” (p. 676). Ideally, this neutral point should also be able to distinguish between ambivalence (e.g. positive and negative feelings simultaneously) and an absence of feelings .
Image of page 33
Image of page 34

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 44 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes