RDT argues that relationships do NOT “progress” in stages, but rather:oAlways have contradictory “tensions”Autonomy vs. connectionOnline Comm and Relationships-Strengthening social ties?oStudies show:Self-reported importance for relationshipsCan gain same intimacy as FtF (but may take longer)Online comm can even be “hyperpersonal”oProblemsConflicts can get nastier online (e.g. cyberbullying)Complexity in choosing channelsInterpersonal Conflict - perceived incompatible goalsConflict Strategies-Escapist strategiesoWant to prevent or get away from conflictoAvoidingGoal: stay away from conflict entirelyIgnores own needs andothers’ needsAvoidance Tactics:Physical avoidanceChanging the subjectDenialPostponementResorting to formal rulesControlling the processGunnysackingoNot dealing with conflict but also not letting it gooObligingGoal: let other have his/her way; appease
Shows some concern for other, but not always best solutionObliging tacticsOpenly given inPassive agreement-Competitive strategiesoWant to get their way; concern mostly with selfoDirect fighting(also called “competitive fighting”)Goal: I win / you loseDirect fighting tacticsAssertivenessVerbal aggression, hostilityPresumptive attributionThreat, UltimatumoIndirect fighting(also called “passive aggression”)Goal: express discontent, but not openlyIndirect fighting tacticsProvoke guiltSubtle, indirect negative messages-Cooperative strategiesoSeek to benefit both parties/relationshipoCompromisingGoal: both gain somethingTrade off: both lose something tooCompromising tacticsRestating positions(instead of needs)Negotiating from extremesoCollaboratingGoal: “win/win” outcomeFlexible goals, perspectiveCollaborating tacticsFocusing on underlying needs(instead of positions)Showing empathy: validating needsHigh disclosure; avoiding blame8/29/18Public Communication and Persuasion(NOTE: Persuasion parts of lecture are key for Paper #2)Public Communication-One speaker (or panel) to an audience (FtF w/ a distance)-What makes speaking effective?oStyle AND substance are important
Effective Style-Appears “natural”oVery fitting of the person’s natural style of talkingoIronically requires practice-Reinforces (not distracts from) messageoE.g. fidgeting, swaying-Is varied (not monotonous)-Demonstrates immediacyoSmiling, eye contactoEmotional intimacy to relate with audience-What helps?oPreparation & Rehearsal!oEffective notesEffective Substance-The right message. . .oDelivered by the right source. . .To the right audience. . .-Let’s focus now on how this works for PERSUASIONoUsing communication to change people’s attitudes or behaviorMessageStrategies-Use of evidence (supporting arguments)oFactual statements, statistics or study findingsoExamples or personal statementsoSayings/quotationsoAnalogies or metaphors-One-sided or Two-sided Arguments?